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REVELATION – The Time is at Hand
This chapter of introduction is to give a broad overview of Revelation and its symbols. Fuller details of events are provided in the relevant chapters.
There is a blessing for those who read, understand, and act on the words of Revelation –
“Blessed is the one who reads aloud the words of this prophecy, and blessed are those who hear it and attend to what is written, because the time is near.” 
Those living during the Jewish revolts of 70 CE and 135 CE against Rome could ‘attend to what is written’ by warning people to flee from Jerusalem and turn to God before they were destroyed. Jesus said “When you see Jerusalem being surrounded by armies, you will know that its desolation is near. Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains… For this is the time of punishment in fulfillment of all that has been written. …There will be great distress in the land and wrath against this people. They will fall by the sword and will be taken as prisoners to all the nations. Jerusalem will be trampled on by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.”
The ‘Times of the Gentiles’ Jesus spoke of are fulfilled. The Jews are back in their land as a Last Day witness before the greatest upheaval in history occurs – the return of Jesus. Perhaps the main message of Revelation is ‘Flee Babylon, run for your lives’ – a giant Passover story. Have the ‘Mark of the Lamb’ not the Beast if you want to be part of God’s Kingdom. Those living at the present time, who attend to what is written, have the same message to deliver as John the Baptist – to proclaim the coming of Jesus and urge people to align themselves with God.
|Matt 3:2 “Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.”||Rev 1:3 “for the time is at hand”|
We are living in the last days of the ‘Kingdoms of Men’. The stage is set – the final ‘Beast’ powers are in place and have been witnessing to the world that they are the epitome` of evil. Revelation explains the current Middle East situation and the distressing turmoil of the Kingdoms of Men – “Who is like the Beast? Who can wage war against it?” We can have prophetic insight into the wave of refugees and the much disputed Temple Mount. This book is written in the hope that people will understand Revelation and respond to its final message.
There are many layers to Revelation. It’s the fuller explanation of Daniel’s sealed prophecies and the wrap-up of God’s judgments on mankind. It draws on symbols and imagery from the rest of the Bible. In Genesis God creates heavens, earth and sea and everything in them in six days. In Revelation He judges and uncreates them with six seals, trumpets and bowls of wrath. The old heavens, earth and sea pass away.
|GENESIS – Creation: In six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them. Ex. 20:11
|REVELATION –New Creation: And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea. Rev. 21:1|
ANOTHER PASSOVER STORY
Revelation is a Passover story for ‘Spiritual Jews’ before the final entry in the ‘Promised Land’
|JEWISH PASSOVER STORY||REVELATION PASSOVER STORY|
|Leave Egypt Leave this place, you and the people you brought up out of Egypt, and go up to the land I promised Exodus 33:1||Leave Babylon – Rev. 18:4 Come out of her, my people,’ so that you will not share in her sins, so that you will not receive any of her plagues|
|Plagues – Acts of Judgment – I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with mighty acts of judgment. Exodus 6:6
|Plagues – Acts of Judgment – Pour out the seven bowls of God’s wrath on the earth. Rev 16:1…True and just are your judgments. Revelation 16:7|
|Angel passes over those with blood of lamb – When the LORD goes through the land to strike down the Egyptians, he will see the blood on the top and sides of the doorframe and will pass over that doorway Exodus 12:23||Angel passes over those with robes dipped in blood of Lamb or seal of Lamb – They have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Revelation 7:14 …”Do not harm the land or the sea or the trees until we put a seal on the foreheads of the servants of our God.” Revelation 7:3|
|Israel in Wilderness
|Woman/Church in Wilderness – The woman fled into the wilderness to a place prepared for her by God Revelation 7:3|
|Israel Carried on Eagles Wings – You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself. Exodus 19:4||Woman Carried on Eagles Wings – The woman was given the two wings of a great eagle, so that she might fly to the place prepared for her in the wilderness Revelation 12:14|
|Jericho falls at trumpets of 7th day – The seventh time around, when the priests sounded the trumpet blast, Joshua commanded the army, “Shout! For the Lord has given you the city! Joshua 6:16||Babylon (Kingdoms of Men) falls at 7th trumpet – The seventh angel sounded his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, which said: “The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Messiah Revelation 11:15|
|SONG OF MOSES – They sank like lead in the mighty waters. Who among the gods is like you, Lord?||Song of Moses in Revelation – They sang the song of God’s servant Moses and of the Lamb. Revelation 15:3|
Isaiah also uses Passover language for the time of God’s wrath –
|ISAIAH – SHELTERING FROM GOD’S WRATH – Go, my people, enter your rooms and shut the doors behind you; hide yourselves for a little while until his wrath has passed by. See, the Lord is coming out of his dwelling to punish the people of the earth for their sins. The earth will disclose the blood shed on it; the earth will conceal its slain no longer.
|The ORIGINAL PASSOVER –And you shall take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood that is in the basin and touch the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning. For the LORD will pass through smiting the Egyptians, and when he sees the blood upon the lintel and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over that door and will not allow the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you. Exodus 12:22|
MANY SYMBOLS – The Same groups of people are described with different symbols.
Jesus is referred to as the Lamb, the rider of the white horse, one like the son of man, the bright morning star, the True Witness etc. The Jews are referred to as the 2 Witnesses clothed in sackcloth of Chapter 11, the Harlot of Chapter 17 and Jerusalem or ‘Mystery Babylon’ of Chapter 18. The Beast which ascends from the bottomless pit is also the locusts of Chapter 9 which come from the bottomless pit – and call for a holy war among the nations. The False Prophet is also the 2nd Beast of Revelation 13. The Church is the 144,000, the Woman of Revelation 12 clothed with all the lights of heaven, the Bride and a building in which Christians are living stones.
THESE SYMBOLS are often used in antithesis. The Lamb is the antithesis of the Beast. The True Witness is the antithesis of the False Prophet. The Bride is the antithesis of The Harlot. New Jerusalem is the antithesis of Babylon and ‘Mystery Babylon’.
The DRAGON, the BEAST and the FALSE PROPHET -This trio feature in Revelation 16 to gather the army of Armageddon.
THE DRAGON is defined in Revelation 20:2 – He seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the devil, or Satan, and bound him for a thousand years.
From this passage we learn that the dragon is the ancient serpent of old who makes his first appearance in the Garden of Eden –
DRAGON = SATAN. He morphs his way through the entire Bible as the spirit of deception – an adversary. He takes many forms. Peter was called Satan when he tempted Jesus. We learn in 2 Cor. 11:14 that ‘Even Satan disguises himself as an angel of light.’
In the context of Revelation, the Dragon is an adversary of God – the spirit of deception which works hand in glove with the Beast and the False Prophet.
THE BEAST – God regards the kingdoms of men who don’t honour Him, as no better than ‘beasts’ – they are ‘Kingdoms of the Earth’ in contrast to ‘the Kingdom of Heaven’ –
The four great beasts are four kingdoms that will rise from the earth. Dan 7:17
Revelation 13 presents us with the image of a dreadful beast, resembling a leopard with 7 heads, 10 horns, the feet of a bear and the mouth of a lion. This beast has grown out of the conglomerate beasts of Daniel 7 where we find a leopard, a bear and a lion having rule over Israel. It is well accepted that they were symbols for Babylon, Medo/Persia, the Greeks and Romans. This image is not about the continuous history of the church – it’s about the Jews time in captivity – under foreign rule while in their land. It is about the curses of Deut. 26 – 28 for not following God, described further in Hosea – I will be like a lion to them, like a leopard I will lurk by the path. Like a bear robbed of her cubs, I will attack them and rip them open; like a lion I will devour them— a wild animal will tear them apart. “You are destroyed, Israel, because you are against me, against your helper.” Hosea 13:7-9
UNDER FOREIGN RULE – The beasts of Daniel 7 correspond to the image of Daniel 2 which is also about Israel under foreign rule in their own land.
BABYLON The first was like a lion, and it had the wings of an eagle. I watched until its wings were torn off and it was lifted from the ground so that it stood on two feet like a human being, and the mind of a human was given to it. Dan 2:7
MEDO/PERSIA And there before me was a second beast, which looked like a bear. It was raised up on one of its sides, and it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth. It was told, ‘Get up and eat your fill of flesh!’ Dan 7:5
GREEKS There before me was another beast, one that looked like a leopard. And on its back it had four wings like those of a bird. This beast had four heads, and it was given authority to rule.
ROMANS The fourth beast is a fourth kingdom that will appear on earth. It will be different from all the other kingdoms and will devour the whole earth, trampling it down and crushing it. The ten horns are ten kings who will come from this kingdom. After them another king will arise, different from the earlier ones; he will subdue three kings… The holy people will be delivered into his hands for a time, times and half a time. Dan 7:23-25 This was the kingdom that scattered the Jews– and trampled them under foot. It morphs into the beast of Revelation with 10 horns. During the days of those kings Israel will again be trampled underfoot until they turn to Jesus who will return and save them.
Hadrian crushing enemy under-foot
When Israel have self-rule (Hasmoneans) and when they are scattered from the land & excluded from Jerusalem (by Hadrian) there are gaps in the image prophecy. The foreign rule during the days of the 10 toes IS STILL FUTURE. At present the Jews are back in their land but not yet under foreign rule (time of final punishment Ezek 35:5).
In Revelation 13, a beast emerges as a wounded head – the dreadful beast of Rome passes its destructive morality to Hitler (the 3rd Reich styled on the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Empire). It triggered the return of Jews to the Promised Land. 10 horns emerge when Israel are back in their land (the Arab nations round about) – and then an eighth Beast which tramples Israel underfoot a final time just prior to the return of Jesus.
The final Beast and 10 horns = the days of the 10 toes of the image.
They are empowered (have crowns) for ‘one hour’ – further explained in Revelation 13 & 17.
THE FALSE PROPHET – The False prophet of Revelation is Islamic Extremism and is also the 2nd Beast of Revelation 13. It performs signs on behalf of the 1st Beast and deceives the people of the earth. This ‘Beast of the Earth’ is described as having horns like a lamb but speaking like a dragon – meaning it looks like ‘a messenger of light’ but is as deceptive as the serpent of Eden. It’s in contrast to Jesus who is both the Lamb and True Witness and speaks without deceit. The False Prophet is politically empowered in the name of Islam to be successful in their warfare – ‘fire from heaven’.
| 2nd BEAST (2 horns like a lamb – Antithesis of The Real Lamb)
And it performed great signs, even causing fire to come down from heaven to the earth in full view of the people. Because of the signs it was given power to perform on behalf of the first beast, it deceived the inhabitants of the earth.
|FALSE PROPHET ( Works by deceit – Antithesis of True Witness)
The beast was captured (Image of 1st Beast), and with it the false prophet who had performed the signs on its behalf. With these signs he had deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and worshiped its image.
ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION –This phrase comes from Daniel and is repeated by Jesus. There are many ‘abominations of desolation’. In Daniel 11:31 Antiochus Epiphanes is attributed with setting one up – His armed forces will rise up to desecrate the temple fortress and will abolish the daily sacrifice. Then they will set up the abomination that causes desolation.
In Luke 21:20 Jesus said that when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies it’s time to flee because her desolation is near (referring to 70 CE) When you see Jerusalem being surrounded by armies, you will know that its desolation is near.
Another time is referred to in Daniel 12:11 “From the time that the daily (sacrifice) is abolished and the abomination that causes desolation is set up, there will be 1,290 days. Blessed is the one who waits for and reaches the end of the 1,335 days.
This prophecy concerns the Islamisation of Jerusalem – when it was declared a holy site for Muslims – See Appendix ‘Daniel 12 – Time of Coming Blessing’
The final time of desolation for Jerusalem is the one coming soon when the armies ‘round about’ gather against her according to Zech. 12 & 14 I will gather all the nations to Jerusalem to fight against it; the city will be captured. – This is the same occasion as Revelation 11:8
The beast that comes up from the Abyss will attack them, and overpower and kill them. Their bodies will lie in the public square of the great city—which is figuratively called Sodom and Egypt—where also their Lord was crucified.
JUDGMENTS – Revelation explains how God will judge different aspects of mankind, we come to the ‘Day of Wrath’ and ‘Time of the End’ multiple times. This indicates that Revelation is showing God’s judgments on each aspect of humanity.
|The Church||Chapters 2-3|
|The Jews- 4 plagues of Leviticus 26 delivered by . Red, Black and Green horsemen||Chapter 6|
|The 144,000||Chapter 7|
|Inhabitants of the earth||Chapter 8v13|
|Trumpet Judgments||Chapter 9|
|The 2 Witnesses – dead for 3.5 days||Chapter 11v8|
|Winepress of God’s wrath||Chapter 14 v19|
|Bowls of wrath||Chapter 16|
|Judgment of the Harlot||Chapter 17|
|Judgment of Babylon||Chapter 18|
|Judgment of Satan||Chapter 20 v2-4|
THE NUMBER 7 – occurs 53 times in Revelation. There are: 7 churches; 7 lampstands; 7 stars; 7 spirits; 7 seals; A lamb with 7 horns & 7 eyes; 7 angels; 7 trumpets; 7 thunders; a red dragon with 7 heads & 7 crowns; a beast with 7 heads; 7 last plagues; 7 vials of wrath; 7 mountains and 7 kings.
Why is God drawing our attention to the number 7? Perhaps the answer is in Ex. 20:11 –
“In six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.”
The seventh day marked the completion of creation. The number seven in Revelation seems to be used to show the completeness of something, whether good or bad.
Initially the Jews were to spend 70 years in Babylon under foreign rule. Because they failed to be the ‘Light of the World’ to the Gentiles, God multiplied the original ‘Time Under Babylon’ to 70 x 7 in fulfillment of the curse in Leviticus 26:18 And if in spite of this you will not listen to me, then I will discipline you again sevenfold for your sins.
Revelation reveals the complete time for Israel under foreign rule to Babylon (70 x 7) – symbol of the Kingdoms of men.
3.5 YEARS – A REPRESENTATIVE TIME
Revelation completes the missing segment of Daniel’s 70 Week prophecy (see Daniel 9). Jesus was ‘cut off’ in the middle of the last ‘7’, leaving 3.5 years incomplete. This time period is applied to the woman in the wilderness (1260 days – time, times, dividing of time), the Beast who witnesses for 42 months, and the 2 witnesses in sackcloth for 1260 days. It is the same time period talked about in each case. 42 months is 1260 days or 3.5 years. All remind us of the 3.5 year witness of Jesus – rejected by Jews and ‘those of the earth’ but embraced by Christians ‘those of heaven’.
1260 days for the woman in the wilderness in Rev 12 is also called a TIME, TIMES AND HALF A TIME (Rev 12:6 & 12:14)– a reference back to the time period in Daniel 12:7. The woman – the true church – changed direction from 609BC – Israel as a nation was in darkness and under foreign rule. The church is nourished by God during the 1260 days just as Elijah was nourished by God when he also fled into the wilderness for three and a half years when there was corrupt rulership.
42 months for the beast. The conglomerate beast of Revelation began its rule of Israel in 609 BC when Josiah died at Megiddo (See notes Chapter 13). Each part of the conglomerate beast is in itself a ‘beast’ – thus when the final ‘little horn’ of Daniel 7 emerges amongst the 10 horns, it becomes ‘The Beast’. Perhaps there is a literal 3.5 year period for the final “Beast” – the antithesis of the 3.5 year witness of ‘The Lamb’.
1260 days 2 Witnesses in sackcloth – The Jews began their witness in sackcloth (in contrast to the woman clothed with all the lights of heaven) when God’s covenant to them as the ‘light to the world’ was taken away.
“Wherever they went among the nations they profaned my holy name, for it was said of them, ‘These are the Lord’s people, and yet they had to leave his land.’” Ezekiel 36:20
At the end times, these 2 Witnesses are back in Israel and are empowered by God to reign fire on their enemies – See Revelation 11.
THE GAP – Understanding the 3.5 year representative time helps us understand the prophecies in Daniel and Revelation which seem to have a gap after the time of the Romans. This is the time of trouble for the Jews ‘such as never before’ described in Daniel 12:1. They were no longer the custodians of the oracles of God and were cut off from the Promised Land. Their persecution reached its climax under Hitler – certainly a time of trouble such as never before. They were scattered for almost 2,000 years to fulfill God’s curse on them, and their land suffered the decreed desolations of Daniel 9. But in that time – the ‘Last Days’ spanning almost 2,000 years – at the end of the 70 ‘7’s, those who turn to God will be delivered.
AN APPEAL TO THE JEWS – Revelation is an appeal to the Jews – that Jesus was and is the Messiah they longed for, the ultimate Passover Lamb. Beginning with the “Lamb that was slain”, alluding to the 3.5 year witness of the Lamb and ending with the “Marriage of the Lamb”, our attention is drawn to Jesus the Passover lamb.
PARALLEL CONTRAST – The fate of the Jews and the Church runs in parallel contrast for 1260 days.
JUDGEMENT OF THE JEWS JUDGEMENT OF THE CHURCH
|2 WITNESSES clothed in sackcloth
Rev. 11 – Witness for 1260 days.
Attacked by the beast from the Abyss
|WOMAN clothed with all the lights of heaven (contrast to the witnesses clothed in sackcloth)
Rev. 12 – 1260 days in wilderness
|HARLOT Rev. 17 – Attacked by the beast of the Abyss – left naked – burnt with fire||BRIDE Rev. 19 – Invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb – clothed with bright linen (contrast to the harlot who is naked)|
The Bible interprets its own symbols – Thus the woman carried on eagles wings in Revelation 12:14 (The woman was given the two wings of a great eagle, so that she might fly to the place prepared for her in the wilderness) is not referring to Rome, Germany, USA or the many countries with an eagle for their symbol. It is a reference back to God bearing Israel on eagles wings in their wilderness wanderings – Exodus 19:4 I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself.
In a similar way God cares for the Church (the Woman) in the wilderness.
CHART OF BEASTS – The following page contains a chart for easy Beast referencing. Each Beast is more fully explained in the relevant chapter –
7 Golden Lampstands – 1:12 & 1:20 The seven lampstands are the seven churches.
|Seven churches of Asia having different doctrines yet Jesus walked amongst them all – ie Ephesus hated Nicolaitans – Pergamum followed them – Jesus walks amongst all the churches, not just one denomination.
Ephesus with correct doctrine was warned for not having enough love and in danger of losing lampstand – Rev. 2:5
Pergamum, with wrong doctrine, was warned that Jesus would come with the sword of His mouth – correct their teaching – Rev 2:16
|7 Stars – 1:16, 1:20 The seven stars are the angels(messengers) of the seven churches
The ‘Seven Stars’/Pleiades – herald of New Life
|Angels/Messengers of Church – They come from being in the presence of God/Jesus (in His hand) to give God’s message – hence they shine like stars like other mortal messengers Eg. Moses on the mountain. The starry people of Dan 12. John the Baptist – “He was a burning and shining light” John 5:35
First century readers would have also made the connection to Pleiades, known as ‘The Seven Stars’ of Amos 5:8 which herald the springtime after death of winter – they herald Jesus the resurrection –
Amos 5:8 KJV “Seek him that makes the seven stars (Pleiades) and Orion, and turns the shadow of death into the morning (Springtime), and makes the day dark with night (Winter).” -Rev 1:18 I am the Living One; I was dead, and now look, I am alive for ever and ever!
|One like a ‘Son of Man’ – 1:13 (Ref to Ezekiel 12:12)
||Jesus – Verse 18 of the same chapter gives the clue that it has to be Jesus, the only one of whom it could be said He – ‘was dead but is now alive.’|
|Long robe – 1:13||Clothed in contrast to being naked.
Rev 3:17 You are wretched, miserable, poor, blind, and naked
|Brilliant white hair like wool – 1:14||White/Bright = righteousness – wool alludes to Jesus the ultimate Passover ‘Lamb’ – See Rev 19:8|
Eyes like fire – 1:14
|Eyes that see (perceptive) in contrast to being blind. Ezekiel was also called ‘Son of Man’ sent to Israel with ‘blind eyes’ Ezekiel 12:12 Son of Man, you dwell in the midst of a rebellious house, which have eyes to see, and see not.|
|Feet like bronze/brass refined in furnace – 1:15||Jesus was the ‘Son of Man’ – refined by God. Contrast here is to Jews – rejected dross left in furnace – ‘Son of man, the people of Israel have become dross to me; all of them are brass, tin, iron and lead left inside a furnace’|
|Holds Stars in right Hand – 1:16
Of further interest, Jesus holds the stars fast – Pleiades is a bound star cluster held together by the gravitational pull of the stars on each other. In contrast, Orion is an expanding star cluster – they are moving away from each other – The details in the Bible of bound and expanding stars were unknown until the 20th Century. Can you bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion? Job 38:31
|Messengers ‘in the presence’ of Jesus who guide the church. The message to each of the churches is to hear what the spirit says to the church – see Rev 2:7.
The spirit and stars are the same – an emblematic parallelism –
These are the words of him who holds the seven spirits of God even the seven stars. Rev. 3:1
God’s messengers are likened to spirits – Who makes His angels (messengers) spirits, and His ministers a flame of fire
Sword coming out of mouth – 1:16
|Symbol of speaking God’s word.
Isaiah 11:4 He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked.
Sword of Spirit :Heb. 4:12, Eph. 6:17
REVELATION 4 – Throne Room in Heaven
Revelation four is straight out of Ezekiel one – God’s throne room in heaven.
|EZEKIEL 1||REVELATION 4|
|1:1 the heavens were opened and I saw visions of God.
|4:1 before me was a door standing open in heaven.|
|1:4 an immense cloud with flashing lightning and surrounded by brilliant light.||4:5 From the throne came flashes of lightning, rumblings and peals of thunder.|
|and in the fire was what looked like four living creatures.||around the throne, were four living creatures|
|1:10 Each of the four had the face of a human being, and on the right side each had the face of a lion, and on the left the face of an ox; each also had the face of an eagle.||4:7-8 The first living creature was like a lion, the second was like an ox, the third had a face like a man, the fourth was like a flying eagle. Each of the four living creatures had six wings all around and full of eyes within.|
Ezekiel’s description of heaven is not a place in outer space – it is of God dwelling in the tabernacle with His people Israel.
It is necessary to understand the way the camp of the Israelites was set up. The Holy of Holies was at its center and God dwelt with/between the cherubim – Is 37:16 “O LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, who is enthroned (between) the cherubim”. This refers to the cherubim on the Ark of the Covenant in the holy of holies – the center of tabernacle worship – thus God’s ‘throne room in heaven’ is His dwelling amongst people – a theme picked up in many Bible passages
Don’t you know that you yourselves are God’s temple and that God’s Spirit dwells in your midst? 1 Cor. 3:16
Behold, the tabernacle of God is among men, and He will dwell among them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself will be among them. Rev. 21:3
The tabernacle was always a symbol of God dwelling amongst His people – to understand Revelation, we need to understand the symbology of the Tabernacle.
24 ELDERS – God appointed an order for the Levitical priests to minister – a cycle of 24 divisions
1 Chron. 24:1-19. “The twenty-fourth to Maaziah. This was their appointed order of ministering when they entered the temple” – they were officials of the sanctuary and of the house of God.
In Chapter 25, the Levitical priests are further divided into 24 divisions, responsible for the worship of the sanctuary in particular the music.
In Chapter 26, the Levitical priests are again divided into 24 gatekeepers for the house of God.
In Numbers 1:53 the priests are described as guardians of the tabernacle
“You will appoint the Levites over the tabernacle of testimony, and over all the vessels thereof, and over all things that belong to it: they shall bear the tabernacle, and all the vessels thereof; and they shall minister to it, and shall encamp round about the tabernacle”.
The 24 elders in Revelation take their symbology from the Levites – those given the task of keeping safe the things of the tabernacle and worship of God. They are literal people who walk the earth, not angelic beings on another planet. We can all minister around God’s tabernacle.
FOUR LIVING CREATURES
The lion, man, ox and eagle describe the four banners the Israelites camped under as they surrounded the tabernacle in the wilderness. (See Numbers chapter 2). 3 tribes faced East, 3 tribes faced South, 3 tribes faced North and 3 tribes faced West. The word of God was supposed to go out to the four corners of the earth from Israel – Thus the symbol 4 is associated with those who go out beyond the borders of Israel eg. The 4 horsemen, the 4 living creatures (people of Israel).
Mal 1:11 “From the rising of the sun to its setting my name is great among the nations”.
There is Biblical support for the Jewish tradition of the pictures on the flags.
JUDAH – the Lion – You are a lion’s cub, Judah; you return from the prey, my son. Like a lion he crouches and lies down. Gen 49:9
REUBEN – Face of Man – Reuben, you are my firstborn son Gen 49:3
EPHRAIM the Ox –In majesty he is like a firstborn bull; his horns are the horns of a wild ox. With them he will gore the nations, even those at the ends of the earth. Deut. 33:17
DAN the flying Eagle – “Dan (meaning Judge) will judge his people” Gen 49:16 – The Flying eagle was a symbol of judgement – An eagle is over the house of the Lord because the people have broken my covenant Hos 8:1
Jer. 48:40 This is what the LORD says: Look! An eagle is swooping down, spreading its wings over Moab.
However Revelation is not talking about the Israelites in the wilderness (although referring to them), but about the camp of ‘Spiritual Israelites’ – the Church – using the same blueprint of worship. The 4 Living Creatures are people. God passed the baton from Israel to Christians to be the light of the world. Israel had failed – they still witness but don’t give the light of God’s word at present.
APPEARANCE AND WORK
Ezekiel equates the appearance and actions of Israel to a ‘wheel within a wheel’.
Their appearance and their work was as it were a wheel in the middle of a wheel.
Thus we understand that a ‘wheel within a wheel’ is talking about appearance and work. Outwardly the tabernacle and Jews looked righteous, but the inner wheel wasn’t so good and God wasn’t happy with them.
Say to the people of Israel, ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: I am about to desecrate my sanctuary—the stronghold in which you take pride, the delight of your eyes, the object of your affection.
There were lots of eyes on the living creatures in Ezekiel (Israel) – yet they don’t see – in contrast the eyes on the living creatures of Revelation are ‘within’ – they do see/perceive and the eyes of Jesus are like blazing fire (they are so perceptive)
You dwell in the midst of a rebellious house, which have eyes to see, and see not; they have ears to hear, and hear not: for they are a rebellious house Ezekiel 12:12
Blessed are your eyes because they see, and your ears because they hear. Matt. 13:16
His eyes were like blazing fire. Rev. 1:16
REVELATION 5 – The Scroll
Chapter five tells us of a sealed scroll.
“Who is worthy to break the seals and open the scroll?” But no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth could open the scroll or even look inside it….The Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David has triumphed. He is able to open the scroll.” Rev 5:2-3
As Revelation goes hand in glove with the prophecies of Daniel it becomes apparent that the sealed scroll referred to in Revelation is the one sealed in Daniel –
“Go your way, Daniel, because the words are rolled up and sealed until the time of the end. Many will be purified, made spotless and refined, but the wicked will continue to be wicked. None of the wicked will understand, but those who are wise will understand.” Dan. 12:9
These words were sealed until the time of the end. In the context of the prophecies to Daniel the ‘time of the end’ refers to the last ‘7’ of the seventy week prophecy which began with the ministry of Jesus. It was during this end time that Jesus opened the sealed scroll and revealed the details for the final times of the Kingdoms of Men. Indeed, the very detailed prophecy of Daniel 11 ends with Herod the Great – See Appendix – ‘Daniel 11 Explained’
The last ‘7’ or ‘time of the end’ of the 70 Week Prophecy is composed of 2 parts – the 3.5 year ministry of Jesus explained in the Gospels, and the 3.5 representative time of the Church, the Jewish witness, and the Beast – Revelation picks up where Daniel 11 left off.
CAN WE UNDERSTAND THE TIME OF JESUS RETURN ?
“But about that day or hour no man knows.” Matt. 24:36 (prior to Jesus death)
The context of this passage is to urge people to be ready and is given in verse 44 “So you also must be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect him.”
This passage is not to quell speculation about Jesus return, but to encourage readiness for it.
We are told in Revelation 5 that the seals were opened by Jesus after His death – a reference to the sealed words of Daniel. It was after Jesus death that He would ascend to His Father, and then reveal the fuller message of Revelation.
“The Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has triumphed. He is able to open the scroll (a reference here to scroll in Daniel 12:9) and its seven seals.” Rev 5:5
Surely the words here are an echo of the words of Jesus and Daniel
|Daniel 12:9||Matt. 24:36 – Before DEATH||Rev 5:2-3 – AFTER DEATH and Triumph|
|Go your way, Daniel, because the words are rolled up and sealed until the time of the end. … None of the wicked will understand, but those who are wise will understand.
|No one knows the day or hour when these things will happen, not even the angels in heaven or the Son himself. Only the Father knows
|But no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth could open the scroll or even look inside it….The Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David has triumphed. He is able to open the scroll.|
The scroll has been opened – Jesus shed further light on the prophecies of Daniel. As the Day of the Lord draws near the prophecies are falling into place and sense can be made of Daniel’s timeline.
“No man knows the day or the hour” was a well-known Jewish idiom in the first century relating to the groom coming for His bride – this was determined by the Father of the groom when the house was fully prepared. It was after His death and resurrection that Jesus went to the Father to prepare a place for the bride.
By understanding Daniel and Revelation we are expected to know that Jesus is coming soon and to proclaim this coming as John the Baptist proclaimed it the first time.
It’s not wrong to try to understand the prophetic messages from God. They can build faith and give us encouragement. Daniel knew from Jeremiah’s prophecies that the desolation of Jerusalem would last 70 years –
I, Daniel, understood from the Scriptures, according to the word of the Lord given to Jeremiah the prophet, that the desolation of Jerusalem would last seventy years.
Knowing this encouraged Daniel to plead for his people and himself. Knowing the signs of the times can encourage us also and enable us to pray like Daniel
I understand from the Scriptures according to the word of the Lord given to Daniel the prophet that the desolation of Jerusalem and its people (the Jews) will last seventy sevens.
The sealing of the scroll in Daniel 12 becomes a 7 fold unsealing in Revelation which commences in Chapter 6.
REVELATION 6 – Opening the Seals
Revelation 6 begins where the detailed prophecy of Daniel 11 left off – The sealed scroll of Daniel 12 is open and first century history continuing from Herod the Great is revealed. This gives us the time and place of the events. Four horsemen go out from ‘God’s throne room in heaven’ which is in the land of Israel during the first century.
(For the explanation of the first 34 verses of Daniel 11 See Appendix ‘Daniel 11 Explained’)
Let’s pick up the prophecy from Daniel 11:35 and merge it with Revelation 6.
Daniel 11:35 And some of those who are wise shall fall, to refine and to cleanse them and to make them white, until the time of the end, for it is yet for the time appointed.
The ‘time of the end’ refers to the 70 weeks Prophecy, which led to the appearance of the Messiah at the end of the 62 ‘7’s – an ‘appointed time’. Jesus began His ministry by saying ‘The time is fulfulled’ also referring to this time.
Daniel 11:36 Then the king shall do according to his will; he shall exalt himself and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak astonishing things against the God of gods. He shall prosper till the indignation is accomplished; for what is determined shall be done
The prophecy tells us about The King at the time of the end according to the next stage of the Daniel 9 prophecy. This king is Herod the Great. He is not called the King of the North (who at this time was Octavius) or the king of the South (Antony & Cleopatra), but simply ‘The King’.
Herod was king of Judea which is ground zero for Bible prophecy. The first thing said of The King in v 36 is that he would “do according to his own will.” Herod’s god was himself.
Daniel 11:37 He will show no regard for the gods of his ancestors or for the one desired by women, nor will he regard any god, but will exalt himself above them all.
Even though Herod was an Idumean (a descendant of Esau), his family had converted to Judaism in the 2nd century BCE, therefore, Herod was generally regarded as a Jew. He promoted Greek and Roman gods for his own political ends. Herod showed no regard for Jesus – the one desired by women – he saw Him as a threat and had the babies of Bethlehem murdered. Jesus was the Messiah desired by both men and women, but many women were hopeful they would be blessed to give birth to the Messiah who would crush sin. Many women followed Jesus as His disciples, they funded His travels, (this was virtually unknown for Rabbi’s of this age) they followed Him to the cross. It’s no wonder they desired the one who was ‘The Way’ who could reverse the consequences of Eden.
Daniel 11:38 He shall honor the god of fortresses instead of these; a god whom his fathers did not know he shall honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts.
The Roman emperors proclaimed themselves to be ‘gods’, and it was by their military ‘forces’ or ‘fortresses’ that they enlarged and sustained their power. Herod honoured the warring Roman rulers with tribute and building projects. He rebuilt many fortresses and temples including three dedicated to Caesar Augustus. He rebuilt the ancient Phoenician coastal fort called Strato’s Tower and renamed it Caesarea in honor of Caesar Augustus; he rebuilt Samaria, and renamed it Sebaste (sebastos was the Greek word for ‘reverend,’ equivalent to the Latin augustus). He built many other fortified cities and named them in honor of Caesar. Herod also introduced Greek-style games in honor of Caesar. He often sent delegations to Rome to deliver valuable gifts and money to show his respect to Caesar.
Daniel 11:39 He shall deal with the strongest fortresses by the help of a foreign god; those who acknowledge him he shall magnify with honor. He shall make them rulers over many and shall divide the land for a price.
Between 39-38 BCE Herod captured Samaria, Jericho and finally Jerusalem itself with the backing of Rome’s forces provided by Mark Antony. Herod gave land and authority to those who supported him in order to secure their allegiance.
At the time of the end, the king of the south will attack the king of the north. The king of the north will storm out with chariots, charioteers, and a vast navy. He will invade various lands and sweep through them like a flood.
Daniel 11:40-42 He (Herod) shall mix horns (combine forces- mix with) with the King of the South. And the King of the North shall rush upon him (the King of the South) like a whirlwind, with chariots and horsemen, and with many ships (Battle of Actium); and he shall come into countries and shall overflow and pass through. 41 He (King of the North – Octavian) shall come into the glorious land. And many shall fall, but these shall be delivered out of his hand: Edom and Moab and the main part of the Ammonites. (Octavian now controls the countries Antony had control over except for Arabia Petraea – the land of Edom, Moab and Ammon) 42 He shall stretch out his hand against the countries, and the land of Egypt shall not escape.
This passage describes the conflict between Antony/Cleopatra and Octavius. Herod was caught in the middle- initially giving military aid to Antony/Cleopatra – the ‘King of the South’ then changing allegiance and siding with Octavius when he saw that Antony was losing the battle.
The course Octavius took after his victory over Antony and Cleopatra at the battle of Actium accurately follows the prophecy. He passed through Syria, Judea (the ‘glorious land’), and went to Egypt. The lands of Edom, Moab, and Ammon were not invaded during this excursion and Malchus King of Arabia Petraea (Edom, Moab, Ammon) who had paid tribute to Cleopatra while Antony was in power, stopped paying it.
Daniel 11:43 He (Octavius the King of the North) shall become ruler of the treasures of gold and of silver, and all the precious things of Egypt; and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall follow in his train.
Octavius captured the riches of Egypt with his victory over Antony and Cleopatra. He celebrated his triumph in Rome in 29 BCE. His general, Cornelius Balbus, later took Libya and Ethiopia for Rome.
Gold Coin: A bound crocodile – issued after the victory of Octavius over Antony & Cleopatra – ‘Egypt is conquered’
Daniel 11:40-42 Tidings from the east and the north shall alarm him, and he shall go forth with great fury to exterminate and utterly destroy many.
Having updated the story flow in verses 40-43 to show the Roman involvement, the prophecy reverts to its earlier subject, Herod The King, at ground zero – Israel. The ‘tidings from the East’ which troubled Herod was the news of the birth of the ‘King of the Jews’ via the Magi. Matt. 2:3 “When Herod the king heard this, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him”. In fury Herod murdered many – Matt. 2:16. Then Herod, when he saw that he was deceived by the wise men, was exceedingly angry; and he sent forth and put to death all the male children who were in Bethlehem and in all its districts, from two years old and under.” The ‘tidings from the North’ came from Rome where his oldest son Antipater sent letters claiming that two of his other sons, were plotting against him. Herod had the two sons killed. A little later Herod executed Antipater as well and 300 of his supporters.
Daniel 11:45 And he shall pitch his tabernacles like palaces between the seas in the glorious holy mountain
Herod built a many fortresses and palaces between the seas (Sea of Galilee and Dead Sea) in the Holy Mountain (Israel). They included those at Alexandruim, Masada, Hyrcania, Herodium, Jericho (Cypros), Caesarea, Jerusalem and Machaerus – see map. His building projects are legendary.
but he shall come to his portion, and there is none to deliver him.
The end of Herod’s life was documented by Josephus. After years of suffering from a painful disease (probably syphilis), Herod finally attempted to take his own life. He was stopped by his cousin Achiab and died painfully.
The detailed accuracy of Daniel 11 can only be explained as ‘Inspired by God’. The book of Daniel found amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls pre-dates these events.
RUSSIA & AMERICA ?
Daniel 11 concludes in Roman times with Herod’s death, bringing us to the time of Christ. This is the ‘end time’ of the 62 ‘7’s but not the 70 ‘7’s of the Daniel 9 prophecy. Some interpret this ‘end time’ with the future end of the world and equate the King of the North with the Ezekiel 38 King of the North as Russia, and the King of the South as America. Ezekiel 38 would seem a different time period and Daniel 11 too specific in its detail to happen a second time. The end time events of our day are explained in Daniel 12 which is expanded in Revelation. Also, in Daniel 11 the King of the North (Octavius) captures Egypt and Cush- they are against him. In Ezekiel 38 the Southern hordes are aligned with the northern hordes – they are on the same side – different events. Compare Daniel and Ezekiel
“He will extend his power over many countries; Egypt will not escape. He will gain control of the treasures of gold and silver and all the riches of Egypt, with the Libyans and Cushites in submission.” Dan. 11:43 The King of the North (Octavius) gains control of Egypt (Antony & Cleopatra) and makes Libya and Cush submit.
But in Ezekiel 38:5 Cush and Put are not made to submit they are allies – “All of them brandishing their swords. Persia, Cush and Put will be with them“ – a different event and time.
Filling in THE GAPS
We find the expanded and continuing prophecy of Daniel 12 in Revelation.
Daniel 12:1 tells us that a great time of trouble arises for Israel
“At that time (the final time of the Daniel 9 prophecy) Michael, the great prince who protects your people, will arise. There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then.
This time of trouble is specifically mentioned as being for Israel (your people). Their greatest time of trouble began when they rejected God’s Son at the end of His 3.5 year ministry. Revelation 6 reveals the consequences which spread out from Israel. The gospel goes to the Gentiles, and the Jews persecute the Christians. As time unfolds the Jews themselves are persecuted with the full force of the curses for breaking the covenant.
4 seals release 4 horsemen. They go out from the throne of God – Israel – ground zero – beginning in the 1st Century. The first 4 seals cover –
White Horse – Jesus on a white horse with a new covenant (bow) to the Gentiles. The white horse links Jesus to the white horse he later rides in chapter 19 when He returns.
Fiery Red Horse – Persecution of Christians –The colour – fiery red – links it to Herod himself the fiery red dragon of chapter 12 who morphs into those who follow in his steps and persecute Christians. (See notes on Chapter 12)
Black Horse – Jews weighed in scales – curse of Lev. 26 on Jews in their own cities, especially Jerusalem 70 CE. They are the epitome of the sun turning black – no longer the light of the world – It would seem that Revelation was written before 70 CE as the 3rd Seal, Trumpet and Bowl all warn of the destruction of Jerusalem.
Green Horse – God’s judgement of 4 plagues on the Jews – scattered to all nations. The Bar Kochba rebellion 132-135 CE, the 3rd and final Jewish/Roman war was the defining one for the dispersion of the Jews from their land (until 1948). The green horse was the full force of the Leviticus 26 judgment on the Jews. Their vigour was dried up – I dry up the green tree and make the dry tree flourish. “ ‘I the Lord have spoken, and I will do it.’ ” Ezek. 17:24
I heard one of the four living creatures say in a voice like thunder, “Come!” I looked, and there before me was a white horse! Its rider held a bow, and he was given a crown, and he rode out as a conqueror bent on conquest. Rev 6:1-2
|Jesus is the rider of the white horse – identified in the description of His second coming in Rev 19:11 I saw heaven standing open and there before me was a WHITE horse, whose rider is called Faithful and True. With justice he judges and wages war. His eyes are like blazing fire, and on his head are many crowns.
Revelation 6 is also talking of Jesus – the same rider – but His first coming. Jesus came and conquered sin – “Be courageous! I have conquered the world.” John 16:33. Every message to the 7 churches of Revelation ends with the phrase “To the one who conquers I will give.” The New Covenant goes to Christians.
|FIERY RED HORSE
I heard the second living creature say, “Come!” Then another horse came out, a fiery RED one. Its rider was given power to take peace from the earth and to make people kill each other. To him was given a large sword.
|Same context as The Fiery Red Dragon of Rev. 12 which morphs from Herod to Jews (See chapter 12 commentary)
Satan from the beginning – in this context talking of Herod and Jews killing babies, killing Jesus, killing John the Baptist, persecuting Jewish Christians. The dragon was enraged at the woman and went off to wage war against the rest of her offspring—those who keep God’s commands and hold fast their testimony about Jesus. Rev. 12:17
Acts 12:2 King Herod (Antipas) arrested some who belonged to the church, intending to persecute them. He had James, the brother of John, put to death with the sword.
I heard the third living creature say, “Come!” I looked, and there before me was a BLACK horse! Its rider was holding a pair of scales in his hand. Then I heard what sounded like a voice among the four living creatures, saying, “Two pounds of wheat for a day’s wages, and six pounds of barley for a day’s wages, and do not damage the oil and the wine!”
|The quote for the Black Horse is taken from Lev. 26 – A time of Judgement for Jews while still in their cities 70-135 CE
I will bring the sword on you to avenge the breaking of the covenant. When you withdraw into your cities, I will send a plague among you, and you will be given into enemy hands. When I cut off your supply of bread, ten women will be able to bake your bread in one oven, and they will dole out the bread by weight. You will eat, but you will not be satisfied. Lev. 26:25-6
They will dash you to the ground, you and the children within your walls. They will not leave one stone on another, because you did not recognize the time of God’s coming to you. Luke 19:44
The Jews didn’t recognize the coming of Jesus of which Daniel & others prophesied. They lost their place in heaven ‘the sun became BLACK’ – they were not the light to the world. Compare to 3rd Trumpet and Bowl, same event.
There before me was a GREEN horse! Its rider was named Death, and Hades was following close behind him. They were given power over a 1/4 of the earth to kill by sword, famine and plague, and by the wild beasts of the earth (God’s 4 judgments).
|DEATH – 4 Judgements against Jerusalem/Jews – Lev. 26 & Ezek. 14
Continuing the theme of measuring bread by weight (Lev 26:26) punishment spirals to 7 fold as God rejects Jews. They are destroyed in their cities and dispersed from their land by the Romans.
Lev 26:25 And I will bring the sword on you to avenge the breaking of the covenant. When you withdraw into your cities, I will send a plague among you, and you will be given into enemy hands (beasts). When I cut off your supply of bread, ten women will be able to bake your bread in one oven, and they will dole out the bread by weight. … I myself will punish you for your sins seven times over. …I will destroy your high places, cut down your incense altars and pile your dead bodies on the lifeless forms of your idols…I will scatter you among the nations and will draw out my sword and pursue you.
Ezek. 14:21 How much worse will it be when I send against Jerusalem my four dreadful judgments—sword and famine and wild beasts and plague—to kill its men and their animals!
1/4 of the earth – Herod the fiery red dragon (See comments chapter 12) had 7 crowns (ruled Israel- The ‘land built on 7 nations’) -when he died it was divided into 4. Herods sons had 3/4 of the old kingdom -the Romans governed the Judean 1/4 – By 135 CE they had destroyed the temple, expelled the Jews and renamed Judea ‘Syria Palaestina’.
When he opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slain … They called out in a loud voice, “How long, Sovereign Lord, holy and true, until you judge the inhabitants of the earth and avenge our blood?” Then each of them was given a white robe, and they were told to wait a little longer, until the full number of their fellow servants, their brothers and sisters, were killed just as they had been.
|Time passes – A scene from the ‘Throne Room in Heaven’. The martyred saints ask how much longer until the earth is judged and their blood avenged – the spirit of justice which cries out to God. In a similar way the blood of Abel cried out to God –“The LORD said, “What have you done? Listen! Your brother’s blood cries out to me from the ground.” The souls under the altar are given white robes and told to wait.|
I watched as he opened the sixth seal. There was a great earthquake. The sun turned black like sackcloth made of goat hair, the whole moon turned blood red, and the stars in the sky fell to earth, as figs drop from a fig tree when shaken by a strong wind… Then the kings of the earth, the princes, the generals, the rich, the mighty, and everyone else, both slave and free, hid in caves and among the rocks of the mountains… the great day of their wrath has come, and who can withstand it?
Lines up with the 6th Trumpet and 6th Bowl (See Below – Events in Parallel). Same language as battle between Gideon and Midianites – Because of Midian, the Israelites made hiding places for themselves in the mountains, caves, and strongholds. …The Midianites, the Amalekites and all the other eastern peoples had settled in the valley, thick as locusts. Judges 6:2 & 7:12
EVENTS IN PARALLEL – Seals, Trumpets, Bowls
In Revelation parallel events end with the Day of Wrath followed by the Kingdom the same period from a different angle. This technique occurs throughout the Bible. Pharaoh had the dream of cows and the dream of wheat for the same event. In Daniel, Israel under foreign rule is portrayed as an image with a head of gold, and a country ruled by wild beasts. In Revelation we are likewise given parallel images to bring us to the same point -The seals, trumpets and bowls all run in parallel and begin where Daniel 11 finished – the sealed scroll at the time of Christ. They all end with the Kingdom. We also need to keep in mind different phrases-
LAST DAYS – Revelation fills in the detail of the ‘Last Days’ of the Daniel 9 prophecy which Peter referred to in Acts 2:17 when he said the Holy Spirit was poured out in the ‘Last Days’. A time spanning Christ’s departure until His second coming – almost 2,000 years.
END OF THE TIME – Daniel 11:40 refers to the end of the 62 ‘sevens’- one part of the Daniel 9 prophecy – the time of Herod.
The ‘END OF THE DAYS’ of Daniel 12:13 brings us to the Kingdom which is the end of the 1260 days plus 1335 days of Chapter 12.
DAYS OF WOE – The last 3 trumpets and bowls of Revelation. The focus shifts from sole judgment on Israel to include judgment on the Kingdoms of Men.
CHART – Seals, Trumpets, Bowls
REVELATION 7 – 144,000 Sealed – The Passover Lamb
Chapter 7 focuses on those who escape the Day of Wrath. The angels are told not to harm the land, sea or trees until the servants of God – who have dipped their robes in the blood of the Lamb – are sealed. This mimics the Passover story found in Exodus –
|“The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you are, and when I see the blood, I will pass over you. No destructive plague will touch you when I strike Egypt.” Ex 12:13||“Do not harm the land or the sea or the trees until we put a seal on the foreheads of the servants of our God.” Rev 7:3|
Throughout Revelation, people either have the mark of the beast or have robes ‘dipped in blood of the Lamb’ with the Fathers name on their foreheads.
These are they who have come out of the great tribulation; they have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Rev 7:14
Then I looked, and there before me was the Lamb, standing on Mount Zion, and with him 144,000 who had his name and his Father’s name written on their foreheads. Rev 14:1
Beginning with the ‘Lamb that was slain’ and ending with the ‘Marriage of the Lamb’ we are reminded of the Jewish Passover and Jesus the Lamb. A message crying out to the Jews that they don’t need a third temple and re-introduction of sacrifices – Jesus was the sacrifice – the Messiah they longed for but who they rejected. This is the setting for the 144,000 (spiritual Jews) who have their robes ‘dipped in the blood of the Lamb’.
The word ‘lamb’ occurs 105 times in the King James Version of the Bible. It occurs 27 times in Revelation – 26% of the total. There are 22 chapters in Revelation – 11 of them refer to ‘The Lamb’.
The Lamb that was slain
Lamb who opens the seals
People who washed their robes in the blood of the Lamb
Those who are the first fruit to the Lamb
The Song of the Lamb
The ‘Book of Life’ of the Lamb
Lamb stands on Mt Zion
Light of the Lamb
Wrath of the Lamb
12 apostles of the Lamb
Throne of the Lamb
SYMBOLIC NOT LITERAL – The 144,000 are made up of the tribes of Israel. This number is as literal as the Lamb they are standing in front of. The entire symbolic nature of the book of Revelation requires a knowledge of symbology. When Revelation 5 tells us that the ‘Lion of the tribe of Judah’ is worthy to open the scrolls, we are then told that the Lamb opens them. When John is told he will be shown the Bride of Christ, he sees a building (New Jerusalem) descending from heaven. One symbol describes another. When we are told in Revelation 1 that Jesus holds 7 stars we are then told they are the angels of the churches. We are told that the lampstands are really churches – a symbol describing something literal. Following this same pattern John hears a voice proclaiming the number of the sealed –
Then I heard the number of those who were sealed: 144,000 from all the tribes of Israel. Rev 7:4
Then John SEES what the voice is talking about – the 144,000 are in fact a multitude without number from every nation on earth.
After this I looked, and there before me was a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people and language, standing before the throne and before the Lamb. They were wearing white robes Rev 7:9
Thus Revelation spells out clearly (for those who see it) that the 144,000 are from every nation on earth, the same message as the 4th Gospel –
Children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or a husband’s will, but born of God. John 1:13
God always wanted people from every nation – that was always His intention for ‘Israel’. This is the point the Jews failed to comprehend (“We alone will build a temple to our God” Ezra 4:3)
Just as the Israelites were ‘passed over’ by the angel of death in Egypt, so too the saints are saved during the time of God’s final judgments on mankind.
“Do not harm the land or the sea or the trees until we put a seal on the foreheads of the servants of our God.” Rev 7:3
This is a Passover story for all mankind at the end of this world as we know it.
REVELATION 8-9 – Background
Revelation 8 brings us to judgments of earth, trees, sea, fresh water, mountains and lights of heaven (sun, moon, stars).
The Bible equates these elements of creation with people – the meaning can change depending on the context – eg. A river could refer to the King of Egypt or the King of Assyria – it’s important to determine the right context. The table below refers to general examples, not Revelation 8.
|TREES||And fire has gone out from its branch; It has consumed its shoots and fruit, So that there is not in it a strong branch, A sceptre to rule. Ezek 19:14 (Referring to Israel’s rulers as branches)|
|EARTH||O earth, earth, earth, hear the word of the LORD. Jer 22:29 (Referring to Judah as the earth)|
|SEA||“The sea is come up upon Babylon: she is covered with the multitude of the waves thereof.” Jer 51:42 (Referring to the Medes as the sea)|
|RIVERS||The Lord is about to bring against them the mighty floodwaters of the Euphrates— the king of Assyria with all his pomp. Isaiah 8:7 (Referring to Assyrians as the Euphrates)
Egypt rises like the Nile, like rivers of surging waters. She says, ‘I will rise and cover the earth Jer 46:8 (Referring to Egypt as the Nile)
|LIGHTS OF HEAVEN made dark||At Tahpanhes also the day will be darkened, when I shall break there the yokes of Egypt: and the pomp of her strength will cease in her: as for her, a cloud will cover her, and her daughters shall go into captivity.” And when I will put you [Pharaoh] out, I will cover the heaven, and make the stars thereof dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon will not give her light. All the bright lights of heaven will I make dark over you, and set darkness on your land, says the Lord God.” Ezekiel 30:18; 32:7-8 (Referring to Egypt declining in power and being controlled by Babylonians)|
|MOUNTAINS||I am against you, 0 destroying mountain, you who destroy the whole earth, declares the Lord. I will stretch out my hand against you, roll you off the cliffs, and make you a burned-out mountain. Jer 51:24 (Referring to demise of Babylonian Empire by the Medes).|
Keeping these symbols in mind helps to understand how the Trumpet judgments can apply to people rather than literally looking for solar eclipses and burnt mountains etc. We also need to keep in mind the meaning of ‘1/3 part’ before we attempt to interpret chapter 8.
Ezekiel the prophet was told to act the doom God pronounced on Israel 5:2-8
When the days of your siege come to an end, burn 1/3 of the hair inside the city. Take 1/3 and strike it with the sword all around the city. And scatter 1/3 to the wind. For I will pursue them with drawn sword. 3But take a few hairs and tuck them away in the folds of your garment. 4Again, take a few of these and throw them into the fire and burn them up. A fire will spread from there to all Israel. “This is what the Sovereign Lord says: This is Jerusalem, which I have set in the center of the nations, with countries all around her. Yet in her wickedness she has rebelled against my laws and decrees more than the nations and countries around her… “Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: I myself am against you, Jerusalem, and I will inflict punishment on you in the sight of the nations.
After shaving his head Ezekiel divided the hair into three parts, except for a few bound in the hem of his robe. These three parts were then consigned to destruction by fire, sword or scattering. The idea, is, that with the exception of the faithful remnant, the entire nation of Israel was to suffer from one of the three afflictions. Not all the horrors of apocalyptic judgement were to fall on all the people, but none was to come through unscathed, except those who had the name of God written on their forehead – Compare Ezekiel 9:4 and Revelation 7:3
|“Go throughout the city of Jerusalem and put a mark on the foreheads of those who grieve and lament over all the detestable things that are done in it.” Ezek. 9:4||“Do not harm the land or the sea or the trees until we put a seal on the foreheads of the servants of our God.” Rev. 7:3|
Having a seal on forehead and escaping the judgment of wrath doesn’t mean protection from beheading or earthly disaster – it’s looking at the big picture. We can be sawn in two as per Hebrews 11, yet not a hair of our head will perish. God always views the big picture – the hope of the Kingdom and glory beyond this life. The reward is not now but later.
REVELATION 8 & 9 – INTERPRETATION
The earth, trees, mountain, sea, star and waters of the first four trumpets all refer to Israel which suffers the 3 types of curse given to Ezekiel when his hair was divided into 3 parts.
|The first angel sounded his trumpet, and there came hail and fire mixed with blood, and it was hurled down on the earth. 1/3 of the earth was burned up, a third of the trees were burned up, and all the green grass was burned up.||“I have come to cast fire on the earth; and how I wish it were already kindled!” The fire was cast on earth by Jesus. The Gospel was spread by Christians – the Jews lost their place as custodians of light, and the curses came on them. Ezekiel said they would be cursed by fire: “Take a few of these and throw them into the fire and burn them up. A fire will spread from there to all Israel.” Ezekiel 5:4|
|The second angel sounded his trumpet, and something like a huge mountain, all ablaze, was thrown into the sea. 1/3 turned into blood, a third of the living creatures in the sea died, and a third of the ships were destroyed.||“Truly I say to you, if you have faith, and do not doubt, you shall not only do what was done to the fig tree, but even if you say to this mountain, ‘Be taken up and cast into the sea,’ it shall happen.” Matt. 21:21 “This mountain” (all ablaze) was Zion, before which Jesus stood at that time, with its altar fire, which never went out. The Judaism entrenched in temple worship was to be the greatest obstruction to the apostles’ preaching of the gospel. Your faith will move this hindrance from your path, foretold Jesus. And so it came to pass.
Ezekiel said the punishment of bloodshed would come on Israel: “Plague and bloodshed will sweep through you, and I will bring the sword against you.” Ezekiel 5:17
|The third angel sounded his trumpet, and a great star, blazing like a torch, fell from the sky on a third of the rivers and on the springs of water— the name of the star is Wormwood. 1/3 of the waters turned bitter, and many people died from the waters that had become bitter…||The symbol of wormwood is taken from Jeremiah 9:15-16 “Behold I will feed them, even this people, with wormwood, and give them water of gall to drink. I will scatter them also among the nations”. The time of the context of this passage is when Jerusalem is to be made a heap of ruins – verse 11 ‘I will make Jerusalem a heap of ruins’. It parallels the 3rd Seal – famine and destruction of Jerusalem 70 CE.|
|3 WOES – As I watched, I heard an eagle that was flying in mid-air call out in a loud voice: “Woe! Woe! Woe to the inhabitants of the earth, because of the trumpet blasts about to be sounded by the other three angels!”||The 3 woes mark a shift in time – events that are occurring now and will soon take place.
|The fifth angel sounded his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen from the sky to the earth.
The star was given the key to the shaft of the Abyss. When he opened the Abyss, smoke rose from it like the smoke from a gigantic furnace. The sun and sky were darkened by the smoke from the Abyss. And out of the smoke locusts came down on the earth and were given power like that of scorpions of the earth. They were told not to harm the grass of the earth or any plant or tree, but only those people who did not have the seal of God on their foreheads. They were not allowed to kill them but only to torture them for five months. And the agony they suffered was like that of the sting of a scorpion when it strikes. During those days people will seek death but will not find it; they will long to die, but death will elude them.
The locusts looked like horses prepared for battle. On their heads they wore something like crowns of gold, and their faces resembled human faces. Their hair was like women’s hair, and their teeth were like lions’ teeth. They had breastplates like breastplates of iron, and the sound of their wings was like the thundering of many horses and chariots rushing into battle. They had tails with stingers, like scorpions, and in their tails they had power to torment people for five months. They had as king over them the angel of the Abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon and in Greek is Apollyon (that is, Destroyer).
The first woe is past; two other woes are yet to come.
|1st WOE – The fifth trumpet, like the fifth seal, is after the passing of time. The locusts are part of the ‘Kingdoms of Men’ which is the Beast. They come from the Abyss and have crowns – the prophecy concerns the time of the ‘Feet of Iron & Clay’ who are given authority for one hour with the Beast (Rev. 17:12)
The Abyss is opened by a star fallen from heaven to earth. There is an immediate connection with Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in Isaiah 14:12
How you have fallen from heaven,morning star, son of the dawn!You have been cast down to the earth, you who once laid low the nations! Saddam Hussein followed in the footsteps of Nebuchadnezzar – a fallen King of Babylon. His demise created the environment for the ‘Arab Spring’ and the extremist group known as ISIS to flourish for a limited time (symbolic 5 months the lifecycle of a locust)
At this stage they don’t harm the grass or trees of the first trumpet (Israel) but the people who aren’t sealed. At the first trumpet all the grass had been burnt – now it’s back – Israel is back in their land and the grass has returned. It seems that this warfare is not within Israel – just as the last plagues of Egypt were not in Goshen where the Israelites dwelt.
In June 2014 Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi issued the call for jihad – holy war – from Nineveh where Sennacherib has once issued a similar decree. He Proclaimed a “new era” in which Muslims will ultimately triumph. His words echo those in Joel 3:9
Proclaim this among nations, Sanctify a war (call for a holy war), stir up the mighty ones.
In 2016 he urged his followers to make a stand in the battle for Mosul and reek destruction – This war is yours. Turn the dark night of the infidels into day, destroy their homes and make rivers of their blood.
His reign is short lived, his power in the Euphrates valley dries up – perhaps when Raqqa on the Euphrates falls – to be replaced with another WOE
|The sixth angel sounded his trumpet, and I heard a voice coming from the four horns of the golden altar that is before God. It said to the sixth angel who had the trumpet, “Release the four angels who are bound at the great river Euphrates.” And the four angels who had been kept ready for this very hour and day and month and year were released to kill 1/3 of mankind. The number of the mounted troops was twice ten thousand times ten thousand. I heard their number. The horses and riders I saw in my vision looked like this: Their breastplates were fiery red, dark blue, and yellow as sulfur. The heads of the horses resembled the heads of lions, and out of their mouths came fire, smoke and sulfur. 1/3 of mankind was killed by the three plagues of fire, smoke and sulfur that came out of their mouths. The power of the horses was in their mouths and in their tails; for their tails were like snakes, having heads with which they inflict injury. The rest of mankind who were not killed by these plagues still did not repent of the work of their hands…
|2nd WOE An hour of destiny
The sixth trumpet heralds the 2nd Woe which is further expanded in Revelation 11:14 and ends with the death of the 2 witnesses (Israel) by the Beast. Yet again 1/3 of mankind (referring to Ezekiel’s curse on Israel) is killed. It is the hour of Israel’s destiny when she suffers a devastating attack from ‘The Beast’ bound at the Euphrates before Jesus returns – the ‘Latter Day Assyrian’ who comes against her in the name of God as Sennacherib of Nineveh (Mosul) once did –The Lord himself told me to march against this country and destroy it.
Sennacherib had boasted about the size of his army – I will give you two thousand horses—if you can put riders on them!
The number of mounted troops at the Euphrates is 200,000,000 (symbolic of a huge army). They will meet the same fate as Sennacherib’s army in the end.
|Revelation 11:15 The seventh angel sounded his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, which said: “The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Messiah, and he will reign for ever and ever.”||The 3RD WOE occurs at the sounding of the 7th trumpet of Revelation 11:15 and concerns the Kingdom of the World passing to the Kingdom of God. The events of this time are more fully explained in Revelation 18, 19 and 20.|
REVELATION 11 – Two Witnesses
Revelation 11 opens with God’s 2 witnesses, Israel and Judah, back in the Promised Land. They are described as 2 ‘sticks’ which become united under Jesus –
These bones are the people of Israel. They say, ‘Our bones are dried up and our hope is gone; we are cut off.’ Therefore prophesy and say to them: ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: My people, I am going to open your graves and bring you up from them; I will bring you back to the land of Israel…I am going to take the stick of Joseph—which is in Ephraim’s hand—and of the Israelite tribes associated with him, and join it to Judah’s stick. I will make them into a single stick of wood, and they will become one in my hand…I will take the Israelites out of the nations where they have gone. I will gather them from all around and bring them back into their own land. I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel. There will be one king (not yet completed) over all of them and they will never again be two nations or be divided into two kingdoms. Ezekiel 37:11-22
This is an amazing prophecy. No other nation on earth has been scattered throughout the world as prophesied, persecuted and taunted as prophesied and returned after almost 2,000 years to become a nation. This prophecy is not fully completed as Jesus is not yet their King.
In 135 CE Hadrian had enough of the Jewish rebellions against Rome. He crushed them, scattered them, banned them from Jerusalem and changed the name of Judea to Palestine. In 1948 the Jews gained their country back and changed the name to Israel. This ended 1,813 years of being trampled underfoot. Now we are in the days of the Two Witnesses in sackcloth with miraculous firepower over their enemies.
|I was given a reed like a measuring rod and was told, “Go and measure the temple of God and the altar, with its worshipers. But exclude the outer court; do not measure it, because it has been given to the Gentiles. They will trample on the holy city for 42 months. And I will appoint my two witnesses, and they will prophesy for 1,260 days, clothed in sackcloth.” They are “the two olive trees” and the two lampstands, and “they stand before the Lord of the earth.”||Israel back in the Land – God is measuring His temple – In this case it’s His 2 Witnesses (Israel and Judah). The Gentiles still have the outer court – part of Jerusalem. The 2 Witnesses were appointed to be an olive tree and a lampstand in the temple –
OLIVE TREES –
“What is my beloved doing in my temple as she, with many others, works out her evil schemes?…The Lord called you a thriving olive tree … But with the roar of a mighty storm he will set it on fire…The Lord Almighty, who planted you, has decreed disaster for you, because the people of both Israel and Judah have done evil and aroused my anger by burning incense to Baal. Jer 11:15-17
ISRAEL THE LIGHT/LAMPSTAND
I will also make You a light to the nations so that My salvation may reach to the ends of the earth.” Is 49:6
|I will empower my two witnesses, and they will prophesy for 1,260 days, clothed in sackcloth.”||God empowers His 2 witnesses – to survive enemy attacks but they are still in sackcloth – not clothed with all the lights of heaven as the woman of Chapter 12|
|They are “the two olive trees” and the two lampstands, and “they stand before the Lord of the earth.”||They prophesy in the manner of Moses and Elijah who also both stood before the Lord of the earth.
See Exodus 3:5 and 1 Kings 17:1
|If anyone tries to harm them, fire comes from their mouths and devours their enemies.||The survival of Israel surrounded by Arab hatred is a modern day miracle on the scale of Moses and Elijah|
|They have power to shut up the heavens so that it will not rain during the time they are prophesying;||Like Elijah|
|And they have power to turn the waters into blood and to strike the earth with every kind of plague as often as they want.||Like Moses|
|Now when they have finished their testimony, the beast that comes up from the Abyss will attack them, and overpower and kill them. Their bodies will lie in the public square of the great city—which is figuratively called Sodom and Egypt—where also their Lord was crucified…||The Beast from the Abyss attacks the 2 Witnesses (Israel) in the very place where they had killed their Messiah. The great city Jerusalem is spiritually called ‘Sodom and Egypt’.
The Beast is explained in Revelation 13.
|But after the three and a half days the breath of life from God entered them…||After the ‘Beast attack’, Israel turns to God and He saves them.|
|At that very hour there was a severe earthquake…
The second woe has passed; the third woe is coming soon.
|A severe earthquake means severe political upheaval. The most severe political upheaval will be the return of Jesus as King. It could be accompanied by a literal earthquake such as the one which opened the tombs at Jesus death – the tombs will again be opened and the saints raised.|
REVELATION 12 – Sign of Woman in Heaven
Revelation 12 describes a woman clothed with all the lights of heaven. She has a crown of 12 stars, is clothed with the sun and has the moon under her feet. She is confronted by a fiery red dragon with 7 heads and 10 horns and 7 crowns on its heads.
The LAND OF 7 & 10 –The Beast of Revelation 13 also has 7 heads and 10 horns – a common factor, but it has 10 crowns on its horns. They are both talking about powers who rule over the same area. The difference between the crowns on the 7 heads or the 10 horns is in the focus of the prophecy. When the dragon has 7 crowns on its heads he has rule over the land of ‘7 Nations’. The Beast has 10 crowns, meaning he has rule over the land of ‘10 nations’ surrounding the 7 nations. Abraham was promised the land of 10 nations from the Nile to Euphrates (Gen 15:18). Israel possessed a land of 7 nations (Deut. 7:1) within that area. Revelation 12 is about the days when the area had 7 crowns – the days of Herod who ruled the land of 7 nations previously ruled by Israel. . Compare the land of ‘7 nations’ the Israelites were told they were to occupy (Num 34:2-12) and the land ruled by Herod the Great. Also the land of 10 nations round about – the ‘pricking briars’ of Ezekiel 28:24 and Psalm 83.
The‘Great Sign of the Woman in Heaven’ is about the first coming of Jesus. Revelation 12 follows the pattern of the book of Daniel in telling the story then repeating it in greater detail. Thus the 1260 days are the same event as the ‘time, times and dividing of time’ when the woman flees into the wilderness – compare the matching colours for matching events –
|A great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head. She was pregnant and cried out in pain as she was about to give birth. Then another sign appeared in heaven: an enormous red dragon with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on its heads. Its tail swept a third of the stars out of the sky and flung them to the earth. The dragon stood in front of the woman who was about to give birth, so that it might devour her child the moment he was born. She gave birth to a son, a male child, who “will rule all the nations with an iron scepter.” And her child was snatched up to God and to his throne. The woman fled into the wilderness to a place prepared for her by God, where she might be taken care of for 1,260 days.
And war broke out in heaven. Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon and his angels fought back. But he was not strong enough, and they lost their place in heaven. The great dragon was hurled down—that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan, who leads the whole world astray. He was hurled to the earth, and his angels with him.Then I heard a loud voice in heaven say:
“Now have come the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God, and the authority of his Messiah. For the accuser of our brothers and sisters, who accuses them before our God day and night, has been hurled down. They triumphed over him by the blood of the Lamb and by the word of their testimony; they did not love their lives so much as to shrink from death. Therefore rejoice, you heavens and you who dwell in them! But woe to the earth and the sea, because the devil has gone down to you! He is filled with fury, because he knows that his time is short.”
When the dragon saw that he had been hurled to the earth, he pursued the woman who had given birth to the male child. The woman was given the two wings of a great eagle, so that she might fly to the place prepared for her in the wilderness, where she would be taken care of for a time, times and half a time, out of the serpent’s reach. Then from his mouth the serpent spewed water like a river, to overtake the woman and sweep her away with the torrent. But the earth helped the woman by opening its mouth and swallowing the river that the dragon had spewed out of his mouth. Then the dragon was enraged at the woman and went off to wage war against the rest of her offspring—those who keep God’s commands and hold fast their testimony about Jesus.
|A great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head.||Woman – the second Eve – Mother of all ‘Truly LIVING’ –Starts as Mary who morphs into the church -clothed with all the lights of heaven.
12 stars a symbol of Spiritual Israel
|She was pregnant and cried out in pain as she was about to give birth.||Allusion to Gen.3 “in pain you will bring forth children”. “My dear children, for whom I am again in the pains of childbirth until Christ is formed in you”|
|Then another sign appeared in heaven: an enormous red dragon with seven heads and ten horns and seven crowns on its heads.||The heads and crowns give us the TIME & PLACE
7 heads = Land of Israel – PLACE
7 crowns = Herod ruling Israel – TIME
|Its tail swept a third of the stars out of heaven and flung them to the earth.||Another allusion to Ezekiel 5’s curse of thirds on Israel. Herod killed many in high places who threatened his throne, even his own sons.
He is spoken of in Dan.11:44 – and he shall go forth with great fury to exterminate and utterly destroy many.
|The dragon stood in front of the woman who was about to give birth, so that it might devour her child the moment he was born.||Herod tried to kill Jesus|
|She gave birth to a son, a male child, who “will rule all the nations with an iron scepter.”||Psalm 2:7 “You are my son:
today I have become your father.
Ask me, and I will make the nations your inheritance, the ends of the earth your possession. You will break them with a rod of iron.” The male child = Jesus
|And her child was snatched up to God and to his throne.||Jesus in heaven and heavenly places.|
|The woman fled into the wilderness to a place prepared for her by God, where she might be taken care of for 1,260 days.
|A ‘type’ – similar to Israel in the wilderness. Allusion to the witness of Elijah for 3.5 years in wilderness. The woman/church – flees into wilderness away from persecution of Jews.|
|Then war broke out in heaven. Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon and his angels fought back. But he was not strong enough, and they lost their place in heaven. The great dragon was hurled down—that ancient serpent called the devil, or Satan, who leads the whole world astray. He was hurled to earth, and his angels.||Herod morphs into the Jews who lose their place in heaven as custodians of God’s word.
Dragon = Serpent, Devil, Satan
|…Woe to the earth and the sea,
because the devil has gone down to you! He is filled with fury,
because he knows that his time is short.”
|Jews who persecute Christians
|When the dragon saw that he had been hurled to the earth, he pursued the woman who had given birth to the male child. The woman was given the two wings of a great eagle, so that she might fly to the place prepared for her in the wilderness, where she would be taken care of for a time, times and half a time, out of the serpent’s reach.||The woman/Church is given wings as Israel had been given them in the wilderness – Exodus 19:4 I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself.
Christians leave Jerusalem and take the gospel to all the world. The red dragon (Herod) has morphed into other ‘serpents’ who persecute Christians. (Dragon = Serpent)
|From his mouth the serpent spewed water like a river, to overtake the woman and sweep her away with the torrent. But the earth helped the woman by opening its mouth and swallowing the river … Then the dragon was enraged at the woman and went off to wage war against the rest of her offspring—those who keep God’s commands and hold fast their
testimony about Jesus.
|Jews pursued the Christians but were subdued by the Romans who destroyed the temple and banned Jews from Jerusalem. However the spirit of the serpent/dragon continues in those who persecute the followers of Jesus.
In Rev 13:2 the ‘anti-Christ’ spirit of the dragon is passed to the beast – The dragon gave the beast his power and his throne and great authority.
REVELATION 13 – The Beast
Chapter 12 flows into chapter 13…
The dragon stood on the shore of the sea. And I saw a beast coming out of the sea. It had ten horns and seven heads, with ten crowns on its horns, and on each head a blasphemous name. The beast I saw resembled a leopard, but had feet like those of a bear and a mouth like that of a lion. – Time has passed. We are now in the days of 10 crowned horns which correspond to the 10 toes of the image of Daniel 2:44 In the time of those kings, the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that will never be destroyed. The habitations of the 10 Arab nations of Psalm 83 were given new powers. At the end of World War One the Ottoman Empire was split up to fulfill God’s prophecies and empower more Arab nations. While this was unfolding events were set in place to bring the Jews back to the Promised Land.
Their return was triggered by Hitler’s Nazi regime and its desire to wipe them off the face of the earth – God knew this would happen. The Nazis and Arabs were united in their hatred of the Jews. Hitler befriended the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem who also wanted the Jews destroyed. Part of Hitler’s SS army included Muslims. The coming together of these two entities and the continuing spirit of Anti-Semitisim found in Islamic Extremists was foretold in Revelation 13 –
The dragon stood on the shore of the sea. And I saw a beast coming out of the sea.
|INTERPETATION –The dragon is Satan/The Ancient Serpent, the spirit of deception (Rev 12:9). In Eden it was the snake. In chapter 12 the dragon was Herod and morphed into the Jews who persecuted Christians – early first century. Revelation reveals his next moves – his spirit of deception at work in the Beast.
This beast rose out of the SEA – out of the nations (Rev 17:15)
|It had ten horns and seven heads, with ten crowns on its horns, and on each head a blasphemous name. The beast I saw resembled a leopard, but had feet like those of a bear and a mouth like that of a lion.
|A conglomerate beast with elements of all the beasts of Daniel 7 – now with 7 heads and 10 crowned horns who come against God’s witnesses – the Jews – explained in Rev. 17
10 CROWNED horns on the beast = The days of the 10 toe kings – The Arab nations given land by the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire at end of 1st WW – the ‘horns of the Beast’ created by many nations of ‘the sea’.
|The Dragon/Satan gave the Beast his power and his THRONE and great authority.
Pergamum temple of Zeus reconstructed in Germany
|Rev 2:13 tells us the Throne of Satan had been in Pergamum – “I know where you live—where Satan has his THRONE.” It was equated with the temple of Zeus where God’s faithful witness Antipas was martyred. This is consistent with the description of Satan the Dragon persecuting those who follow Jesus in Rev. 12:17.
The temple of Zeus was taken from Pergamum and reconstructed in Germany at the end of the 19th Century. It was the inspiration for Hitler’s podium Zeppelinfeld (see Nazi party rally grounds – Wiki- It was one of Albert Speer‘s first works for the Nazi Party and was based upon the Pergamon Altar.)
The deceptive spirit of ‘Satan’, once in Pergamum persecuting God’s witness Antipas, was now in Nazi Germany persecuting God’s witnesses the Jews. The Jews who had once persecuted Christians became the ones persecuted.
|The beast was given a mouth to utter proud words and blasphemies and to exercise its authority for forty-two months.
Hitler and the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem1941 – the same aim -eradicate the Jews.
|Throughout the Bible literal periods happen first as a pointer to the ‘type’ or representative periods which follow. The 42 month witness of ‘The Beast’ is the antitype of the 42 month witness of ‘The Lamb’. Hitler tried for 42 months to exterminate the Jews – the time the gas chambers lasted. Anti-Semitism continues and the literal 42 months adds to the representative periods of 3.5 years throughout Revelation.|
|It opened its mouth to blaspheme God, and to slander his name and his dwelling place and those who live in heaven. It was given power to wage war against God’s holy people and to conquer them. And it was given authority over (among) every tribe, people, language and nation. All inhabitants of the earth will worship the beast—all whose names have not been written in the Lamb’s book of life.||Hitler killed 6,000,000 Jews – God’s holy people – His witnesses. He was the power who received the fatal wound, yet an image rises with the same ideals. The head with the ‘healed fatal wound’ embracing the ideals of Hitler to exterminate the Jews, is extreme Islam.|
|10“If anyone is to go into captivity, into captivity they will go.
If anyone is to be killedc with the sword, with the sword they will be killed.”
This calls for patient endurance and faithfulness on the part of God’s people.
|“Into captivity” – a reference to Jerusalem going into captivity a final time before Jesus returns. The quotes below refer to this and are generally poorly translated – Luke 21:24 They will fall by the edge of the sword and be led captive among all nations, be captive to the nations
Zech 14:2 Half of the city will go into exile, go into captivity but the rest of the people will not be taken from the city.
|Then I saw a second beast, coming out of the earth. It had two horns like a lamb, but it spoke like a dragon.
|2nd Beast – Extreme Islam
2 horns – Shia and Sunnies
‘Spoke like a dragon’ – Dragon is Satan the deceiver as v14 says ‘it deceived the inhabitants of the earth’
|It exercised all the authority of the first beast on its behalf, and made the earth and its inhabitants worship the first beast, whose fatal wound had been healed.||Nazi Anti-Semitism received a fatal wound at the end of WW 11 – Islamic extremists have revived it and require its members to ‘kill the infidels’ as Hitler did.|
|And it performed great signs, even causing fire to come down from heaven to the earth in full view of the people. Because of the signs it was given power to perform on behalf of the first beast, it deceived the inhabitants of the earth.||Radical Islam claims to have the backing of Allah.
We are warned to be on the watch for deceptive works – 2 Thes. 2:9 The coming of the lawless one will be in accordance with how Satan works. He will use all sorts of displays of power through signs and wonders that serve the lie.
Radical Islam claims to have ‘fire from heaven’ – they have called for a ‘Holy War’ such as in Joel 3:9
Proclaim this among the nations: “Prepare for a holy war! (sanctify war) Call out the warriors! Joel 3:9 NET Bible
|It ordered them to set up an image in honour of the beast who was wounded by the sword and yet lived. The second beast was given power to give breath to the image of the first beast, so that the image could speak and cause all who refused to worship the image to be slain.
It also forced all people, great and small, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hands or on their foreheads, so that they could not buy or sell unless they had the mark, which is the name of the beast or the number of its name. This calls for wisdom. Let the person who has insight calculate/count the number of the beast, for it is the number of man (humanity). That number is 666.
|WORSHIP OR BE KILLED
Copying the language of the image of Babylon– “Whoever does not fall down and worship will immediately be thrown into a blazing furnace.” Dan 3:6 –All German citizens had to salute Hitler by law
In a similar manner of ‘Worship or Be Killed’ – extreme Islamists believe those who refuse to convert to Islam should be killed.
666 – Counting the number of the Beast. The beast of Revelation with 7 heads and 10 horns is a composite of all the nations who have and will come against Israel from the time they came under foreign rule. Each head represents a kingdom which in itself is ‘A Beast’. On a literal level, counting the time of foreign rule over Israel while they were in their land, adds up to 666 years before their dispersion by Hadrian – they were ruled by ‘The Beast’. See Introduction page 8.
On a metaphorical level the number of the Beast means to be ruled by humanity not God – your heart is in the wrong place. ‘Teach us to number/count our days, that we may gain a heart of wisdom.’ Psalm 90:12
In contrast to the mark of the Beast is the mark of the Lamb. Then I looked and saw the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with Him 144,000 who had His name and His Father’s name written on their foreheads. Rev. 14:1
REVELATION 16 – Bowls of Wrath
The bowls of wrath have the same starting point as the Trumpets and Seals – first century Judea after the death of Jesus. The Roman ‘Beast’ of Daniel’s image comes against Israel and scatters them. The land itself lies desolate. Finally destruction is poured back onto the desolater – language reminiscent of Daniel 9:27
And the abomination of desolation will be on a wing of the temple until the decreed destruction is poured out on the desolator.”
The first 4 Bowls of Wrath are poured on Israel – then Wrath is poured on the Throne of the Beast. Three foul spirits go out from the ‘throne of the Beast’ to the surrounding countries and beyond to gather them for Armageddon – the battle against Jerusalem.
The parable of Jerusalem begins in Genesis, (on one level of many) with the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Jerusalem was in the middle of God’s garden, adorned with precious jewels. In a prophecy to Hiram, Jerusalem is likened to Eden – Hiram had helped Solomon build the Temple –
‘You were the seal of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. You were in Eden, (Jerusalem) the garden of God; every precious stone adorned you: carnelian, chrysolite and emerald, topaz, onyx and jasper, lapis lazuli, turquoise and beryl. Your settings and mountings were made of gold; on the day you were created they were prepared. You were anointed as a guardian cherub, for so I ordained you. You were on the holy mount of God. Ezekiel 28:12-14
In Revelation 16 the Dragon (Serpent), the Beast and the False Prophet entice people to gather for a battle against Jerusalem with 3 foul spirits reminiscent of the lie of the serpent in Eden – you can have the fruit, you won’t die. But God says that those who touch Jerusalem touch the apple of His eye –
|Genesis – Tree in Garden||Jerusalem – God’s Tree|
|In the MIDDLE of the garden were the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Gen 2:9||Literal Jerusalem
This is Jerusalem, which I have set in the MIDDLE of the nations, with countries all around her. Ezekiel 5:5
On each side of the river stood the tree of life, bearing twelve crops of fruit, yielding its fruit every month. Rev 22:2
|You must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil for when you eat from it you will certainly die. Gen 2:17||Whoever touches you (Jerusalem) touches the apple of his eye— Zech. 2:8
|You will not certainly die,” the serpent said to the woman. “For God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” Gen 3:4-5|| Lie of the Serpent:
‘If you see the black banners coming from Khurasan, join that army, even if you have to crawl over ice; no power will be able to stop them. And they will finally reach Baitul Maqdis [Jerusalem], where they will erect their flags.’
|The serpent deceived me – Gen 3:13||I saw three impure spirits that looked like frogs; they came out of the mouth of the dragon (serpent), out of the mouth of the beast and out of the mouth of the false prophet. They are demonic spirits that perform signs, and they go out to the kings of the whole world, to gather them for the battle on the great day of God Almighty (against Jerusalem). Rev 16:13 –|
|Then I heard a loud voice from the temple saying to the seven angels, “Go, pour out the seven bowls of God’s wrath on the earth.”
|The decreed destruction is poured out on the desolator (Israel) Dan 9:27
Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, … Look, your house is left to you desolate... you will not see me again until you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.’ Matt. 23:37-8
|The first angel went and poured out his bowl on the land, and ugly, festering sores broke out on the people who had the mark of the beast and worshiped its image.||Israel cast off for rebellion –
Woe to the sinful nation, a people whose guilt is great, a brood of evildoers, children given to corruption! They have forsaken the Lord…Your whole head is injured, your whole heart afflicted. From the sole of your foot to the top of your head there is no soundness— only wounds and welts and festering sores Isaiah 1:4-6
|The second angel poured out his bowl on the sea, and it turned into blood like that of a dead person, and every living thing in the sea died.||God’s ‘Living Creatures’ Israel, profaned His name among the nations (SEA) And wherever they went among the nations they profaned my holy name, for it was said of them, ‘These are the Lord’s people, and yet they had to leave his land. Ezek. 36:20|
|The third angel poured out his bowl on the rivers and springs of water, and they became blood. Then I heard the angel in charge of the waters say:
“You are just in these judgments, O Holy One, you who are and who were; for they have shed the blood of your holy people and your prophets, and you have given them blood to drink as they deserve.” And I heard the altar respond: “Yes, Lord God Almighty, true and just are your judgments.”
|Israel is equated with the rivers and springs of water – they shed the blood of the prophets. They were supposed to be rivers that “make glad the city of God” Ps 46:4 But Jesus said of them – You testify against yourselves that you are the descendants of those who murdered the prophets. They were polluted by the blood of the prophets– and God polluted them with their own blood. This is the prophecy of 70 CE when Jerusalem was filled with blood. Compare with parallel event in the 3rd Seal and Trumpet|
|The fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun, and the sun was allowed to scorch people with fire. They were seared by the intense heat and they cursed the name of God, who had control over these plagues, but they refused to repent and glorify him.||The 4th Bowl parallels the time of the 4th Seal and Trumpet. Rome was the ‘Terrible Beast’ or ruling power (Sun) of Daniels vision. The Romans ‘burnt the Jews with fire’ in fulfilment of Ezekiel 5:4 and eventually banned them from Jerusalem. They also changed the name of Judea to Palaestina. It is said that during the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132-135 CE, 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed; “many more” Jews died as a result of famine and disease. The Jews were scattered, GAP while land desolate.|
|The fifth angel poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast, and its kingdom was plunged into darkness. People gnawed their tongues in agony and cursed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores, but they refused to repent of what they had done.||The 5th Bowl parallels the rise of the crowned locusts from the Abyss. These are the days of the Arab Spring. The old Kingdom of Babylon or Assyria, the area of Israel’s ancient foes, is plunged into chaos.|
|The sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates, and its water was dried up to prepare the way for the kings from the East.||The Euphrates dries up at the same time that the armies of Revelation 9:13-18 are gathered there. The rise of a river is symbolic of the rise of the power controlling it. The drying up of a river is symbolic of the power controlling it drying up. In June 2014 Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi proclaimed a Caliphate and control of the Euphrates valley, but now his power has almost dried up – Thus the Euphrates dried up in preparation of another group of Kings to come in.|
| Then I saw three impure spirits like frogs; they came out of the mouth of the dragon, out of the mouth of the beast and out of the mouth of the false prophet.
|Out of this area the Dragon (adversary), the Beast (8th head) and the False Prophet (Extremist Islam) send out a message that pervades the land like frogs. The 6th Bowl lines up with the 6th Seal and 6th Trumpet – an army ‘of Biblical proportions – twice ten thousand times ten thousand’ is gathered.|
|They are demonic spirits that perform signs, and they go out to the kings of the earth and the whole world, to gather them for the battle on the great day of God Almighty.
“Behold, I come like a thief! Blessed is the one who stays awake and remains clothed, so as not to go naked and be shamefully exposed.”
Then they gathered the kings together to the place that in Hebrew is called ARMAGEDDON.
|A demonic spirit goes out from the dried Euphrates (ISIS power vacuum) area to the rulers ‘of the earth’ and ‘the whole world.’ Nations around Israel, and the entire world gather for battle on the great day of God. This is the situation we can see today – armies of the earth (local area) and the world (area beyond) are gathered in Iraq/Syria waiting the Great Day of God, yet they don’t know it.
At this point is the statement “Behold I come as a thief”. Jesus ‘comes as a thief’ for His Bride – a Jewish Idiom so the bride watches because she doesn’t know the exact time she’ll be taken – but she knows the approximate time and has her clothes on.
ARMAGEDDON Verse 16: Then they gathered the kings together to the place that in Hebrew is called Armageddon (or Har-Magedon)
Armageddon comes from 2 Hebrew words –
הַר Har – meaning ‘mountain
מְגִדּוֹן Megiddon – Name of town meaning ‘place of crowds’.
This verse draws our attention to the place of Judgment, and to the army which comes against Jerusalem and Christ and ultimately gets thrown into the Lake of Fire. That army is the ‘MOUNTAIN of Megiddo – the place of crowds where the kings are gathered.
In the Old Testament the ‘Valley of Megiddo’ was also called the ‘Valley of Jezreel’ or Plain of Esdraelon. It was the setting of at least 4 significant events. However, Revelation refers to the Mountain of Megiddo, not the valley. This is another case of ‘a mountain’ representing an obstacle which will be levelled . The valley of Megiddo was the place Judah came under foreign (Beast) rule when Josiah died. The mountain (of gathered armies) will be the place of their repentance and end of ‘Beast’ rule for Israel. Just as Babylon is a Mountain cast into the sea, so Megiddo (composed of the Beast and False prophet) will be cast into the Lake of Fire. The ‘Mountain of Megiddo’ is the End Time army gathered against Jerusalem – Rev 19:19 Then I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together (description of Armageddon in Rev. 16:16) to wage war against the rider on the horse and his army. But the beast was captured, and with it the false prophet who had performed the signs on its behalf. With these signs he had deluded those who had received the mark of the beast and worshiped its image. The two of them were thrown alive into the fiery lake of burning sulfur.
The meaning of the Mountain of Megiddo is enhanced by understanding previous events
PRIOR EVENTS IN THE VALLEY OF MEGIDDO
1.Barak went with Deborah to fight Sisera with 900 iron chariots, the Canaanite king, an enemy of God. The kings of Canaan fought. At Taanach, by the waters of Megiddo
Sisera met his death with a tent peg through his head at the hands of a tent-dwelling woman. A parable of smiting sin on the head and clearing land of Canaanites (Beast Kingdom). Zechariah ends by saying there will be no more Canaanites in Israel – not meaning literal Canaanites such as Rahab, but spiritual ones such as Sisera. “And on that day there will no longer be a Canaanite in the house of the Lord”  – No more enemies of God in ‘Israel’ His dwelling place.
- The battle between Gideon and Midianites. Because of Midian, the Israelites made hiding places for themselves in the mountains, caves, and strongholds (quoted in Revelation 6:15). …The Midianites, the Amalekites and all the other eastern peoples had settled in the valley (of Megiddo), thick as locusts. Judges 6:2 & 7:12
- Megiddo Valley (Mt Gilboa) was where Saul died. The Kingdom passed from one who failed to keep God’s commands to David – the man with a heart for God. The ‘Mountain of Megiddo’ will fall and the Kingdom will pass to Jesus (David’s greater Son).
- Megiddo was the place God finally cast off Judah with the death of Josiah. The point is made that even he turned aside from God’s command on the plain of Megiddo – He would not listen to what Necho had said at God’s command but went to fight him on the plain of Megiddo.” 2 Chron 35:22 This was 609 BCE – The year Judah came under foreign rule from Egypt – the start of being ruled by the ‘Beast’ Kingdoms.
The enemies of Israel gathered at Megiddo seemed like an insurmountable mountain. The Midianites were ‘as thick as locusts’ – Sisera’s army had iron chariots. Another such time is coming when Israel will seem outnumbered.
PSALM 83 lists 10 enemies of Israel – the nations ‘round about’. It links their demise to the events in the valley of Megiddo.
Do to them as you did to Midian, as you did to Sisera and Jabin at the river Kishon, who perished at Endor (Valley of Megiddo) and became like dung on the ground… who said, “Let us take possession of the pasturelands of God.” Make them like tumbleweed…like chaff before the wind. As fire consumes the forest or a flame sets the mountains ablaze, so pursue them with your tempest.
This points to the judgment of the ten horns around Israel who try to take Jerusalem ‘the apple of God’s eye’– they will meet their end as Midian and Sisera did when they also tried to make the pasturelands of God their possession.
|The seventh angel poured out his bowl into the air, and out of the temple came a loud voice from the throne, saying, “It is done!” Then there came flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder and a severe earthquake. No earthquake like it has ever occurred since mankind has been on earth, so tremendous was the quake. The great city split into three parts, and the cities of the nations collapsed. God remembered Babylon the Great and gave her the cup filled with the wine of the fury of his wrath. Every island fled away and the mountains could not be found. From the sky huge hailstones, each weighing about a hundred pounds fell on people. And they cursed God …||The great earthquake is linked to the return of Jesus in Zechariah – a symbol of change of Government – the greatest ever – from the Government of men to that of God and Jesus.
There is another reference to the punishment by thirds on Israel – the great city (Jerusalem) is split into three parts – Zech. 13:8-9 –
In the whole land,” declares the Lord,
“two-thirds will be struck down and perish; yet one-third will be left in it. This third I will put into the fire; I will refine them like silver and test them like gold.
They will call on my name
and I will answer them;
I will say, ‘They are my people,’
and they will say, ‘The Lord is our God.’ ”
REVELATION 17 – The Harlot, the Beast & Babylon
The Bible identifies the Harlot of Revelation 17 as Israel – The ‘Bride’ in the wilderness who forsook God and was unfaithful with the gods of other nations and materialism. However, a popular view holds that the seven hills and Beast of Babylon are Rome, and the Harlot is the Catholic Church with the Pope at its head as a false teacher. The Bible likens false teachers to ‘Satan’ – ‘Even Satan disguises himself as a messenger of light’ – this can apply to a false teacher in any church – but the context of the Harlot of Revelation is Israel.
The idea that Babylon = Rome arose from Church Fathers such as Irenaeus who wanted to establish the supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church. They presented the interpretation that Peter’s greeting to the church in Babylon was really a code for Rome to protect Christians suffering persecution. The persecution of Christians at this time was sporadic and limited. There are no other examples of people or places resorting to code names. It seems a suggestion of the Orthodox Church only, to use as Biblical evidence that Peter was in Rome.
Claim of Irenaeus Concerning Roman Church
“It would be very tedious, in such a volume as this, to reckon up the successions of all the Churches, we do put to confusion all those who, in whatever manner, whether by an evil self-pleasing, by vainglory, or by blindness and perverse opinion, assemble in unauthorized meetings; [we do this, I say,] by indicating that tradition derived from the apostles, of the very great, the very ancient, and universally known Church founded and organized at Rome by the two most glorious apostles, Peter and Paul; as also [by pointing out] the faith preached to men, which comes down to our time by means of the successions of the bishops. For it is a matter of necessity that every Church should agree with this Church, on account of its preeminent authority, that is, the faithful everywhere, inasmuch as the tradition has been preserved continuously by those [faithful men] who exist everywhere.”
Rome was not built on seven literal hills – Vatican hill is not one of the seven – Paul did not establish the church there and there is no evidence that Peter ever went there.
Sixty cities in the world claim to be built on seven hills because they want to be known as a great or complete city.
The answers for the identity of the Harlot and the seven hills are within the Bible – once again God’s focus is on His special witnesses Israel. It is the nation of Israel who ‘played the harlot’ and focused on commerce rather than God. The harlot who sits on many waters – meaning she has many lovers. Hosea 1:2 “Like an adulterous wife this land is guilty of unfaithfulness to the LORD.”
A hill or mountain generally represents a nation in Bible symbology, not a literal hill of Rome. For example the reference to Babylon in Jer. 51:24 – I am against you, O destroying mountain, you who destroy the whole earth, declares the Lord. I will stretch out my hand against you, roll you off the cliffs, and make you a burned-out mountain.
Israel was built on the land of 7 nations, thus she ‘sat on 7 hills’.
7 HEADS AND 10 HORNS – Israel – the land of 7 nations is described in 3 passages
|Deut 7:1 When the LORD your God brings you into the land you are entering to possess and drives out before you many nations–the Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites, seven nations larger and stronger than you—||JOSH 3:10 This is how you will know that the living God is among you and that he will certainly drive out before you the Canaanites, Hittites, Hivites, Perizzites, Girgashites, Amorites and Jebusites. (7 nations)
ACTS 13:19 and he overthrew seven nations in Canaan, giving their land to his people as their inheritance
Israel took the land of Canaan – the land of 7 nations, but Abraham was promised the area between the Nile and Euphrates – a land of 10 nations.
GEN 15:18 “To your descendants I give this land, from the Wadi of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates— 19 the land of the Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, 20 Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaites, 21 Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites and Jebusites.”
This area includes the 10 nations surrounding Israel listed in Psalm 83 –
With one mind they plot together; they form an alliance against you—the tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites, of Moab and the Hagrites, Byblos, Ammon and Amalek, Philistia, with the people of Tyre. Even Assyria has joined them to reinforce Lot’s descendants.
This list is a focus on Abraham’s other relatives through Hagar, Ishmael, Lot and Esau – they also possessed the land promised to Abraham.
|Promise to Hagar – Gen 21:18 God heard the boy crying, and the angel of God called to Hagar from heaven and said to her, “What is the matter, Hagar? Do not be afraid; God has heard the boy crying as he lies there. Lift the boy up and take him by the hand, for I will make him into a great nation.”||Promise to Lot – Deut 2:9 Then the Lord said to me, “Do not harass the Moabites or provoke them to war, for I will not give you any part of their land. I have given Ar to the descendants of Lot as a possession.”
|Promise to Esau – Hebrews 11:20 “By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things to come.”
Gen. 27:39 “Your dwelling will be away from the earth’s richness, away from the dew of heaven above. You will live by the sword and you will serve your brother.
MAP – 7 heads and 10 horns
The prophecy of 7 hills also includes another aspect, 7 Kings. They are not one and the same. The hills are the foreign nations Israel took over, but the Kings are the foreign nations who took over Israel.
This calls for a mind with wisdom: the seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman is seated; (Land of Israel)
and there are also seven kings, five of whom have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come, and when he comes he must remain only a little while. The beast who once was, and now is not, is an eighth king. He belongs to the seven and is going to his destruction. Rev 17:9-10 (The Beast who comes against Israel)
7 KINGS (Kingdoms) – 5 in past, 1 at time of writing, 1 in future – who are they and why are 6 now in the past and only one in the future plus an eighth Beast?
|FIVE FALLEN||ONE IS||ONE NOT YET COME
ALSO AN EIGHTH
Gap from the time of the Romans to the days of the ‘10 toe kings’ of Daniel 2. Israel is scattered and the land is desolate. (Refer to ‘The Gap’ page 12)
|Hitler 7th head (a short reign)
Also an 8th King who was and is not and yet will be – This is the ‘Beast’ who attacks Israel, yet to be revealed, and who is empowered by Islamic Extremism.
|Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and said to me, “Come, I will show you the judgment of the great harlot who is sits on many waters, 2 with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and with the wine of whose fornication the dwellers on earth have become drunk.” 3 And he carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness, and I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast which was full of blasphemous names, and it had seven heads and ten horns.||The great harlot here echoes Jer 51:13 (to Babylon) O thou that dwells on many waters, abundant in treasures, your end is come, and the measure of your covetousness.
“sits on many waters” means she trades amongst many nations
Corrupt Israel (harlot) in the land of Israel (7 heads) surrounded by 10 nations (10 horns)
|The woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet, and bedecked with gold and jewels and pearls, holding in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the impurities of her fornication; 5 and on her forehead was written a name of mystery: “Babylon the great, mother of harlots and of earth’s abominations.” 6 And I saw the woman, drunk with the blood of the saints and the blood of the martyrs of Jesus.||
Not the literal Babylon but Corrupt Israel the Spiritual Babylon who kills the prophets
“Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you” Matt 23:37
|When I saw her I marveled greatly. 7 But the angel said to me, “Why marvel? I will tell you the mystery of the woman, and of the beast with seven heads and ten horns that carries her. 8 The beast that you saw was, and is not, and is to ascend from the bottomless pit and go to perdition; and the dwellers on earth whose names have not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, will marvel to behold the beast, because it was and is not and is to come. 9 This calls for a mind with wisdom: the seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman is seated; 10 they are also seven kings, five of whom have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come, and when he comes he must remain only a little while.||7 MOUNTAINS = land of 7 nations given to Israel – Deut. 7:1, Acts 13:19
7 KINGS: Kingdoms/Empires connected to Israel (the Harlot) and her enslavement to “Kingdoms of Men”
5 Fallen: Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medes/Persians, Greeks
One Is: Rome: THE GAP (time gap when Jews are not in land until the formation of the 10 toe kings)
One Yet to Be: who only lasts a little while – Hitler
|As for the beast that was and is not, it is an eighth but is OF the seven, and it goes to perdition.
12 And the ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have not yet received royal power, but they are to receive authority as kings for one hour, together with the beast. 13 These are of one mind
|8th Beast will be know when it attacks Israel.
10 horns = ‘Ten Toe’ Arab nations – of “one mind” against Israel in Psalm 83
They have taken counsel together with one consent: they have made a confederacy against you.
|they are to receive authority as kings for one hour, together with the beast.13 These are of one mind and give over their power and authority to the beast; 14 they will make war on the Lamb, and the Lamb will conquer them, for he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those with him are called and chosen and faithful.”||The 10 Arab nations give power to the beast – for one hour they will rule until they are defeated by the Lamb/Jesus who has the saints with Him.|
|And he said to me, “The waters that you saw, where the harlot is seated, are peoples and multitudes and nations and tongues. 16 And the ten horns that you saw, they and the beast will hate the harlot; they will make her desolate and naked, and devour her flesh and burn her up with fire, 17 for God has put it into their hearts to carry out his purpose by being of one mind and giving over their royal power to the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled.||The Arab nations driven by their ‘holy war’ attack Israel|
|18 And the woman that you saw is the great city which has dominion over the kings of the earth.”||Should read more literally– “And the woman you saw is the city great having kingship among the kings of the earth” – fuller explanation below|
RULING OTHER KINGDOMS?
“ And the woman that you saw is the great city which has dominion over the kings of the earth.” Rev 17:18
At face value verse 18 is puzzling. How does Israel or indeed any kingdom in the last days rule over the kings of the earth? Again we look at how accurate the translators were in this passage.
A more accurate translation is “And the woman you saw is the city great having kingship among the kings of the earth”. The word theygenerally translated as dominion means ‘kingship’. The Greek work epi they translated as ‘over’ means ‘on the basis of’ and can legitimately be translated as ‘among’ or ‘into’ – We can see the same word translated as ‘among’ and ‘into’ in Matt 13:7-8 KJV
And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprung up, and choked them:
8 But other fell into good ground,
Thus “And the woman you saw is the great city having kingship among the kings of the earth” gives the sense of the passage. The context supports this. The harlot is part of the ‘Kingdoms of Men’ caught up in wealth rather than God. The harlot is caught up with the kings of the earth rather than being a nation literally ruling over them –
Rev 17:1-2 “Come, I will show you the judgment of the great harlot who is seated upon many waters, with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication”
REVELATION 18 – Mystery Babylon
Revelation 18 concerns ‘Mystery Babylon’ and is a mosaic of quotes from the Old Testament. Almost every verse is reminiscent of the Kingdoms of Nimrod, Babel, Idolatrous Israel and the great trading nations of Tyre and Carthage (Tarshish). Babylon itself is a symbol of the ‘Kingdoms of Men’. ‘Mystery Babylon’ is Israel, who were supposed to ‘Flee Babylon’ but instead they ‘became Babylon’.
As we have previously seen, in Revelation 11:8 Jerusalem became spiritual Sodom and Egypt, identified by telling us it’s the place where Jesus died – And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified. And now finally, Jerusalem is spiritually called ‘Mystery Babylon’ –identified as the place where God’s prophets were killed – In her was found the blood of prophets and of God’s holy people, of all who have been slaughtered on the earth. Jesus also identifies Jerusalem as the place where God’s prophets were killed – Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you.
Israel became entrenched in trade and wealth, caught up in the ‘Kingdoms of Men’ rather than being the spiritual ‘Light to the World’. She is the ‘harlot’ of Revelation 17 who has ‘Mystery Babylon’ written on her head. She is likened to all the other great trading nations and her demise is lamented as the full force of the curses for turning from God and rejecting Jesus come on her.
In one day her plagues will overtake her: death, mourning and famine. She will be consumed by fire. Revelation 18:8
Death by fire was the punishment under the Law of Moses for the daughter of a Priest who became a harlot (Leviticus 21: 9). In Ezekiel 16:38 God sentences Israel to the punishment of those who shed blood and play the harlot – I will sentence you to the punishment of women who commit adultery and who shed blood.
In Revelation 18 we see this sentence carried out – in symbol, her punishment is likened to the punishment of the nations she became –
|REVELATION 18||CROSS REFERENCES|
|After this I saw another angel coming down from heaven. He had great authority, and the earth was illuminated by his splendor. With a mighty voice he shouted:|
|‘Fallen! Fallen is Babylon the Great!||‘Babylon has fallen, has fallen! Isaiah 21:9 (concerning Babylon)|
|She has become a dwelling for demons and a haunt for every impure spirit, a haunt for every unclean bird,
a haunt for every unclean and detestable animal.
|Desert creatures and hyenas will live there, and there the owl will dwell. Jer. 50:39 (concerning Babylon) Hyenas will inhabit her strongholds, jackals her luxurious palaces. Isaiah 13:22 (concerning Babylon)|
|For all the nations have drunk
the maddening wine of her adulteries.
|Babylon was a gold cup in the Lord’s hand; she made the whole earth drunk. The nations drank her wine; therefore they have now gone mad. Jer. 51:7 (concerning Babylon)|
|The kings of the earth committed adultery with her, and the merchants of the earth grew rich from her excessive luxuries.”||She will return to her lucrative prostitution and will ply her trade with all the kingdoms on the face of the earth. Isaiah 23:17 (concerning Tyre)|
|Then I heard another voice from heaven say: “ ‘Come out of her, my people, so that you will not share in her sins, so that you will not receive any of her plagues;||“Flee from Babylon! Run for your lives! Do not be destroyed because of her sins. It is time for the LORD’s vengeance; he will repay her what she deserves. Jer. 51:6 (concerning Babylon)|
|for her sins are piled up to heaven, and God has remembered her crimes. Give back to her as she has given; pay her back double for what she has done. Pour her a double portion from her own cup.||Her judgment reaches to the skies, it rises as high as the heavens.’ Jer. 51:9 (concerning Babylon)
I will repay them double for their wickedness and their sin, Jer. 16:18 (concerning Jerusalem)
|Give her as much torment and grief as the glory and luxury she gave herself. In her heart she boasts,
‘I sit enthroned as queen. I am not a widow I will never mourn.’
|You said, ‘I am forever—
the eternal queen! ‘I am, and there is none besides me. I will never be a widow or suffer the loss of children.’ Isaiah 47:7-8 (concerning Babylon)
|Therefore in one day her plagues will overtake her: death, mourning and famine. She will be consumed by fire, for mighty is the Lord God who judges her.||How much worse will it be when I send against Jerusalem my four dreadful judgments–sword and famine and wild beasts and plague–to kill its men and their animals! Ezek. 14:21 (concerning Jerusalem)|
|When the kings of the earth who committed adultery with her and shared her luxury see the smoke of her burning, they will weep and mourn over her. Terrified at her torment, they will stand far off and cry:
“ ‘Woe! Woe to you, great city, you mighty city of Babylon! In one hour your doom has come!’
|Both of these will overtake you in a moment, on a single day: loss of children and widowhood.
Isaiah 47:9 (concerning Babylon)
|“The merchants of the earth will weep and mourn over her because no one buys their cargoes anymore—cargoes of gold, silver, precious stones and pearls; fine linen, purple, silk and scarlet cloth; every sort of citron wood, and articles of every kind made of ivory, costly wood, bronze, iron and marble; cargoes of cinnamon and spice…||They will shave their heads because of you and will put on sackcloth. They will weep over you with anguish of soul and with bitter mourning.
Isaiah 27:31 (concerning Tyre)
|“They will say, ‘The fruit you longed for is gone from you. All your luxury and splendor have vanished, never to be recovered.’ The merchants who sold these things and gained their wealth from her will stand far off, terrified at her torment. They will weep and mourn and cry out: “ ‘Woe! Woe to you, great city, dressed in fine linen, purple and scarlet, and glittering with gold, precious stones and pearls!
In one hour such great wealth has been brought to ruin!’
|You satisfied many nations;
with your great wealth and your wares you enriched the kings of the earth. Now you are shattered by the sea in the depths of the waters; your wares and all your company have gone down with you. All who live in the coastlands are appalled at you; their kings shudder with horror and their faces are distorted with fear. The merchants among the nations hiss at you; you have come to a horrible end and will be no more.’ ” Ezekiel 27:33-6 (concerning Tyre) also Ezek 16:10-13
|“Every sea captain, and all who travel by ship, the sailors, and all who earn their living from the sea, will stand far off. When they see the smoke of her burning, they will exclaim, ‘Was there ever a city like this great city?’ They will throw dust on their heads, and with weeping and mourning cry out: “ ‘Woe! Woe to you, great city,where all who had ships on the sea became rich through her wealth! In one hour she has been brought to ruin!’||The sea captains and all the sailors will stand on the shore. They will raise their voice and cry bitterly over you; they will sprinkle dust on their heads and roll in ashes. They will shave their heads because of you and will put on sackcloth. They will weep over you with anguish of soul and with bitter mourning. As they wail and mourn over you, they will take up a lament concerning you: “Who was ever silenced like Tyre. Ezekiel 27|
|“Rejoice over her, you heavens!
Rejoice, you people of God! Rejoice, apostles and prophets! For God has judged her with the judgment she imposed on you.”
|Then a mighty angel picked up a boulder the size of a large millstone and threw it into the sea, and said:
“With such violence the great city of Babylon will be thrown down, never to be found again.
|When you finish reading this scroll, tie a stone to it and throw it into the Euphrates. Then say, ‘So will Babylon sink to rise no more because of the disaster I will bring on her Jer. 51:63 (concerning Babylon)|
|The music of harpists and musicians, pipers and trumpeters,
will never be heard in you again.
No worker of any trade will ever be found in you again. The sound of a millstone will never be heard in you again. …
|I will put an end to your noisy songs, and the music of your harps will be heard no more. Ezekiel 26:13 (concerning Tyre)|
|In her was found the blood of prophets and of God’s holy people,
of all who have been slaughtered on the earth.”
|“O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to it! Matt 23:37 (Concerning Jerusalem)
You took your sons and daughters whom you bore to me and sacrificed them as food to the idols Ezekiel 16:20 (concerning Israel)
Revelation 19 – 22 completes the picture of the transition from the Kingdoms of Men to the Kingdom of God on earth. The thread of inspiration woven throughout the Bible from Genesis to Revelation could only have come from the same author. Although it was written over a 1500 hundred year period, by many people – the Bible reveals a master plan at every stage which is only seen when all the pieces come together. Human authors, without God’s inspiration, could not have written a book in such a masterful way. It ends where it began – The Tree of Life parable and a warning –
|Adam and Eve were custodians of the Tree of Life in the middle of the garden watered by a river. There was another tree – In the midst of the garden were the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Gen 2:3 The Tree of Knowledge came from God and was not theirs to tamper with. They disregarded God and were cast out of Eden – a cherub was given the job of guarding the Tree of Life.
|Israel were the custodians of the Tree of Life in the middle of the nations – “This is Jerusalem. I have set her in the midst of the nations.” Ezekiel 5:5
The Jews were entrusted with the oracles of God. Rom. 3:2
Israel disregarded God and were cast out – the way to the Tree of Life was via Jesus “I am the way… no-one comes to the Father except through me”.
|New Jerusalem of Revelation 22 is an overlay of Eden. Living water flows from God’s throne in the midst of the earth to water the Tree of Life- On each side of the river stood the tree of life – Rev 22:2.|
The last warning in Revelation is the same as the first warning in Genesis – NOT to add or take away from God’s words -the Tree of Knowledge –
I warn everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this scroll: If anyone adds anything to them, God will add to that person the plagues described in this scroll. And if anyone takes words away from this scroll of prophecy, God will take away from that person any share in the tree of life and in the Holy City, which are described in this scroll. Rev. 22:18
The lie of the serpent in Eden was that we don’t need God, we can be as wise as He is by eating the fruit He created. “You will not certainly die,” the serpent said to the woman. “For God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” The lie of the serpent is still the same – that we can help ourselves to the tree of knowledge, have no need of God and can be as wise as He is.
Much more could be written here to explain Revelation, but soon every eye will see it unfold.
“The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent and believe the gospel.”
SATAN AS AN ANGEL OF LIGHT
Satan means ‘adversary’ – not a supernatural being, but anyone, or any thought opposed to God. Each person is tempted when he is enticed by his own desire. James 1:14
In 2 Cor. 11:14 Satan appears as an angel of light – ‘Even Satan disguises himself as an angel of light.’
In any church there can be those who appear to give the word of God but teach wrongly.
In any university there can be those who appear to be wise, who see God’s creation, yet deny His existence.
DANIEL 12 – Time of Coming Blessing
TIMES & DATES –
Jesus encouraged us to be watching for His return which will take many by surprise –
“About that day or hour no man knows.” Matt. 24:36.
The context of this passage is given in verse 44 “So you also must be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect him.” The purpose of this passage is to make sure we are ready to meet Jesus.
The wise men of the east knew to expect Jesus first coming and were watching for it. We can likewise understand the time of his second coming and Daniel gives us a timeline with the words “the wise will understand”.
Daniel knew from Jeremiah’s prophecies that the accomplishment of the ‘desolation of Jerusalem’ would be 70 years. He also understood that Jerusalem’s fate was bound to the other nations also controlled by Babylon –
“This whole land shall be a desolation, and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon 70 years.” Jer 25:11 “When seventy years are completed for Babylon” Jer 29:10
Babylon did not take over all the surrounding nations at the same time, but basically, the kingdom of Babylon lasted 70 years from the time the Assyrian stronghold at Harran fell to them in 609BC, until Cyrus conquered Babylon in 539 BC.
“In the first year of Darius son of Xerxes a Mede by descent (ruled with Cyrus 539 BC), who was made ruler over the Babylonian kingdom – in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, understood from the Scriptures, according to the word of the Lord given to Jeremiah the prophet, even 70 years for the accomplishment of the desolation of Jerusalem.” Dan. 9:2
This was the year 539 BC (the termination of the 70 yr prophecy) when Cyrus the Persian conquered Babylon. Clearly the 70 year prophecy was for the Kingdom of Babylon – the desolation of Jerusalem was only a part of that. It didn’t mean Jerusalem would be controlled by Babylon for 70 years, but Jerusalem’s captivity would end when the 70 years for Babylon were ended. The whole 70 years did however coincide with Jerusalem coming under foreign rule – first the Egyptians, then the Babylonians. Knowing the date of the end of the 70 years as 539 BC, gives us the date of the start – 609 BC.
CONTINUAL COVENANT BROKEN
Thus 609 BC was when God’s continual covenant with Israel was broken and Judah came under foreign rule without a rightful King – a situation that would continue until the crown is restored to its rightful owner. 609 BC was pivotal year.
‘You profane and wicked prince of Israel, whose day has come, whose time of punishment has reached its climax, this is what the Sovereign Lord says: Take off the turban, remove the crown. It will not be as it was: The lowly will be exalted and the exalted will be brought low. A ruin! A ruin! I will make it a ruin! The crown will not be restored until he to whom it rightfully belongs shall come; to him I will give it.’ Ezek 21:25-7
Daniel knew the 70 years was up in 539 BC, but still no word had gone out to return to Jerusalem, so he prayed. As soon as he petitioned God the word went out. But God had bad news for Daniel, it was going to take 70 ‘7’s before the Jews and Jerusalem would be restored – this included ‘THE GAP’ when the Jews would again be dispersed and the land desolate –
DANIEL 12 ‘TIME OF BLESSING’
The starting date for the Daniel 12 prophecy concerning the ‘TIME OF BLESSING’ is the same as the starting date for the 70 years of desolation. The prophecy says the time starts from the turning aside of the perpetual or continual (covenant).
“From the time that the continual [?] shall be taken away, and the abomination that makes desolate set up, there shall be one thousand two hundred ninety days.”
The pivotal point seems to be 609 BC – the death of the last good King Josiah, and the point is made that even he turned aside from God’s command on the plain of Megiddo
2 Chron. 35:22 “Josiah, however, would not turn away from him, but disguised himself to engage him in battle. He would not listen to what Necho had said at God’s command but went to fight him on the plain of Megiddo.”
Thus Megiddo becomes the place God finally cast off Judah. Appropriate that Rev. 16 refers to the mountain of Megiddo because the place of their demise will be the place of their repentance – when this occurs the valley will become a mountain (great nation). Armageddon means “the mountain of Megiddo”
Daniel’s prayer in Ch. 9 referred to the turning aside (H5493) of Israel from God’s covenant from 609BC (start of 70 yr. captivity) – Dan 9:5
|Dan 9:5 We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by turning aside (H5493) from thy precepts and from thy judgments:||Dan 12:11 and from the time of the turning aside (H5493) of the perpetual (?), and to the giving out of the desolating abomination, are days a thousand, two hundred, and ninety.|
So when God gave the Daniel 12 prophecy to Daniel and referred to the time of the “turning aside” Daniel would have understood it to mean 609 BC – when even Josiah turned aside and was cut off in the valley of Megiddo – and when God turned aside or took away His covenant with the Jews because they turned away from Him.
Daniel would have been aware of God’s words to Josiah via Huldah
“This is what the Lord says: I am going to bring disaster on this place and its people—all the curses written in the book that has been read in the presence of the king of Judah.” 2 Chron. 34:24
3 KEY EVENTS occur in Dan 8 and Dan 12
“From the time that the continual (sacrifice?/covenant?) is taken away, and the abomination that makes desolate is set up, there shall be 1290 days. Blessed is he who waits and comes to the 1335 days”. Dan 12:11-12
- Removal of continual covenant / Setting up of Abomination of Desolation / 3. The Time of Blessing
Daniel 12 is repeating what happened in Daniel 8. The Jews understood the events of Daniel 8 as applying to Antiochus Epiphanes and wrote about them in Maccabees. Daniel 12 refers to similar events which began with the removal of God’s covenant with the Jews (ruling land with rightful King/Priest), and applies them to a greater time of blessing.
1290 days followed by 1335 days/years
609 BCE – Removal of Continual Covenant – Israel under foreign rule without rightful king. (609 BC Coincided with start of 70 yrs. for Babylon which ended 16th Tishri 539 BCE – (See Nabonidus Chronicle) or 5/6 Oct 539 BCE Gregorian calendar – Yom Kippur – appropriate time for Babylon to be conquered and Jews freed)
ADD 1290 YEARS
682 CE ( add a year when passing zero ) – Abd Allahibn al-Zubay conquered Mecca and stopped pilgrims coming to the Hajj. Abd al-Malik the Umayyad Caliph, responded by creating a new holy site. He designated the Temple Mount in Jerusalem the “Farthest Mosque”. Jerusalem was now a holy site for Islam. Dome of Rock built soon after. Just prior to this in 680 CE Oct 10 (Yom Kippur) – Battle of Karbala – separated Sunni and Shi’a Islam.
ADD 1335 YEARS to 682 CE
2017 – If this interpretation is correct then the ‘Time of Blessing’ is the time described in Rev 1:3 when those who understand the word attend to it and proclaim God’s coming King and Kingdom, because they can see that the ‘Time is at Hand’.
Daniel 11 is an overview of the nations controlling Israel from the time of Cyrus to the reign of Herod the Great. It provides such an explicit history of events that critics say it must have been written after they occurred. Those who believe in the creator of the universe who is not bound by time, and reveals the future, know that He not only revealed the future to Daniel, but has revealed it to us too.
The summary below is adapted from research by Bryan T. Huie
Text of Daniel in ITALICS – Explanatory comments BOLD
11 1 And as for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood up to confirm and strengthen him. (This was also the year Cyrus captured Babylon 539BC – Cyrus and Darius the Mede co-ruled)
2 “And now I will show you the truth. Behold, three more kings (after Cyrus) shall arise in Persia; (Cambyses, Bardya, Darius 1) and a fourth shall be far richer than all of them; (Xerxes 1) and when he has become strong through his riches, he shall stir up all against the kingdom of Greece.
(In 480 BC, Xerxes personally led the second Persian Invasion of Greece with one of the largest ancient armies ever assembled.)
Then a mighty king shall arise, who shall rule with great dominion and do according to his will. (Alexander the Great 356- 332) 4 And when he has arisen, his kingdom shall be broken and divided toward the four winds of heaven, but not to his posterity, nor according to the dominion with which he ruled; for his kingdom shall be plucked up and go to others besides these.
(The Hellenistic world settled into four stable power blocks: the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, the Seleucid Empire in the east, the Kingdom of Pergamon in Asia Minor, and Macedon.)
“Then the king of the south (Ptolemies) shall be strong, but one of their princes shall be stronger than he (Seleucus) and his dominion shall be a great dominion. 6 After some years they shall make an alliance, and the daughter of the king of the south shall come to the king of the north to make peace; but she shall not retain the strength of her arm, and he and his offspring shall not endure; but she shall be given up, and her attendants, her child, and he who got possession of her.
(In 249 BCE, king of the South Ptolemy II Philadelphus sent his daughter Berenice to king of the North Antiochus II Theos to stop the war that was raging (the Second Syrian War) and unite the two kingdoms through marriage. Antiochus II put away his wife Laodice and married Berenice. She persuaded him to reject Laodice’s children and set up her own. After Ptolemy II died Antiochus II repudiated his marriage to Berenice and left her and their infant son to return to Laodice. Laodice murdered Antiochus II with poison. She then convinced her son, Seleucus II Callinicus, to kill both Berenice and her son. So, Ptolemy II king of the South, his daughter Berenice, and Antiochus II king of the North all lost in their struggle for power.)
“In those times a branch[b] from her roots shall arise in his place; he shall come against the army and enter the fortress of the king of the north, and he shall deal with them and shall prevail.
(Ptolemy III Euergetes, the eldest son of Ptolemy II and brother of Berenice, was not happy about the murder of his sister. He invaded the Seleucid empire. His armies defeated the forces of Seleucus II- son of Antiochus II and Laodice and put to death Laodice.)
He shall also carry off to Egypt their gods with their molten images and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and for some years he shall refrain from attacking the king of the north.
(During the Third Syrian War, Ptolemy III recovered many of the statues that the Persian forces of Cambyses had carried off during their conquest of Egypt 300 years earlier. Because of this, he was known as Euergetes (“Benefactor”). Ptolemy III acquired much gold and silver during his victorious campaign.)
Then the latter shall come into the realm of the king of the south but shall return into his own land.
(In 240 BCE Seleucus II attempted to invade Egypt in response to the humiliation he suffered at the hands of Ptolemy III. He had to return in defeat after his fleet perished in a storm.)
10 “His sons shall wage war and assemble a multitude of great forces, which shall come on and overflow and pass through, and again shall carry the war as far as his fortress.
(The sons of Seleucus II were Seleucus III Ceraunos and Antiochus III. Seleucus III, began a war against the Egyptian provinces in Asia Minor. He was unsuccessful, and was assassinated by members of his army in Asia Minor in 223 BCE. Antiochus III, took the throne at the age of 18 after his brother’s death. He victoriously went through Judea, coming almost to the borders of Egypt.)
Then the king of the south, moved with anger, shall come out and fight with the king of the north; and he shall raise a great multitude, but it shall be given into his hand.
(Antiochus III met Ptolemy IV Philopater at the Battle of Raphia (also known as the Battle of Gaza) in 217 BCE. Antiochus III, the king of the North, had 62,000 infantry, 6,000 calvary, and 103 war elephants. But the forces of Ptolemy IV, king of the South, were victorious in the battle. Antiochus III was forced to withdraw into Lebanon.)
12 And when the multitude is taken, his heart shall be exalted, and he shall cast down tens of thousands, but he shall not prevail. 13 For the king of the north shall again raise a multitude, greater than the former; and after some years[c] he shall come on with a great army and abundant supplies.
(After the death of Ptolemy IV in 204 BCE, Antiochus III rallied his forces once again to attack the kingdom of the South. In the Fifth Syrian War (202-195 BCE), Antiochus III swept down into Judea from Syria. He retook the territory that he had occupied some eighteen years previously. When Antiochus III withdrew for the winter, the Egyptian commander Scopas reconquered the southern portions of the lost territory, including Judea and Jerusalem.)
14 “In those times many shall rise against the king of the south; and the men of violence among your own people shall lift themselves up in order to fulfil the vision; but they shall fail. 15 Then the king of the north shall come and throw up siegeworks, and take a well-fortified city. And the forces of the south shall not stand, or even his picked troops, for there shall be no strength to stand.
(Following his defeat at Paneas, Scopas fled to the fortified port city of Sidon. But after Antiochus III besieged it, Scopas surrendered in 199 BCE in exchange for safe passage out of the city back to Egypt. He and his troops were allowed to leave the city naked after giving up their weapons.)
16 But he who comes against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him; and he shall stand in the glorious land, and all of it shall be in his power.
(With his final victory over Scopas at Sidon, Antiochus the Great took the Holy Land away from the Egyptians for good. Judea and Jerusalem had passed from the king of the South to the king of the North.)
17 He shall set his face to come with the strength of his whole kingdom, and he shall bring terms of peace and perform them. He shall give him the daughter of women to destroy the kingdom but it shall not stand or be to his advantage.
(Ptolemy V entered into a treaty with Antiochus III after his military defeat in the Fifth Syrian War. He surrendered his Asian holdings to the king of the North and accepted Antiochus III’s daughter, Cleopatra I, as a bride. They were married in 194 BCE. He sought to gain a foothold in Egypt through his daughter. But Cleopatra I was a true wife to Ptolemy V, standing by him instead of seeking to benefit her father.)
18 Afterward he shall turn his face to the coastlands, and shall take many of them; but a commander shall put an end to his insolence; indeed he shall turn his insolence back upon him.
(Antiochus III went to war against Rome. With 10,000 men, Antiochus III sailed across the Aegean Sea and took some strongholds in Asia Minor. But he alienated his former ally, Macedonian king Philip V. The Roman army entered Asia Minor and defeated the larger forces of Antiochus III at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BCE. In the peace treaty of Apamea in 188 BCE, Roman general Publius Scipio demanded twenty hostages (including his son, Antiochus IV), a reduction of naval ships to twelve, and payment to Rome for the cost of the war totaling 15,000 talents over the next twelve years. The all-consuming ambition of Antiochus III brought defeat to the kingdom of the North.)
19 Then he shall turn his face back toward the fortresses of his own land; but he shall stumble and fall, and shall not be found.
(With his kingdom now reduced to Syria, Mesopotamia, and western Iran, Antiochus III was in dire need of funds with which to pay Rome for the cost of the war. In 187 BCE, while attempting to plunder a pagan temple in Babylon near Susa, Antiochus III was murdered.)
20 “Then shall arise in his place one who shall send an exactor of tribute through the glory of the kingdom; but within a few days he shall be broken, neither in anger nor in battle.
(AntiochuSeleucus IV Philopater, took over after his father’s death. Due to the heavy debt burden imposed by Rome, he was forced to seek an ambitious taxation policy on his shrunken empire. This included heavy taxation on the people of Israel. The Roman senate decided to trade hostages; therefore, they ordered Seleucus IV to send his son Demetrius, the heir to the throne, to Rome. In return, the Romans released Seleucus IV’s younger brother, Antiochus IV. When released, Antiochus IV went to Athens. In 175 BCE, after Demetrius had been sent away to Rome, Seleucus IV was poisoned by his minister Heliodorus.)
21 In his place shall arise a contemptible person to whom royal majesty has not been given; he shall come in without warning and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.
(Antiochus IV arrived in Seleucia with a powerful ally and thwarted Heliodorus’ designs on the throne. He became co-regent and protector of Seleucus IV’s infant son (also named Antiochus). In 170 BCE, the younger Antiochus was murdered while Antiochus IV was conveniently absent, paving the way for him to take sole possession of the throne.)
22 Armies shall be utterly swept away before him and broken, and the prince of the covenant also.
(Because of his ability to charm people and ally himself with them, Antiochus IV Epiphanes (“God manifest”) was able to overcome all threats to his throne. The prince of the covenant is a reference to the Jewish high priest Onias III. A brother of Onias named Joshua, who had become hellenized and changed his name to Jason, made a deal with Antiochus IV. Jason told him that he would pay Antiochus IV a large bribe if he would remove Onias and make him high priest in his place. So Antiochus IV forced Onias out and installed his brother Jason as high priest in Jerusalem in 174 BCE. In 172 BCE, Jason sent a priest named Menelaus to Antiochus IV with his tribute money. However, Menelaus took Jason’s money, and bribed Antiochus IV to secure the high priesthood for himself. Menelaus then returned to Jerusalem and deposed Jason, who fled for his life.)
23 And from the time that an alliance is made with him he shall act deceitfully; and he shall become strong with a small people.
(In Egypt, 14-year old Ptolemy VI Philometer had become king. He was the nephew of Antiochus IV; his mother (Cleopatra I) was Antiochus IV’s sister. Antiochus IV sought an alliance with Ptolemy VI, seeking to take advantage of what he perceived as weakness in the Ptolemaic kingdom and gain Egypt for himself. He moved through Syria and Judea into Egypt with a small army, so as to not arouse suspicion to his true motive, and seized Egypt. His cover story was that he was coming to act as the “protector” of his nephew, Ptolemy VI.)
24 Without warning he shall come into the richest parts of the province; and he shall do what neither his fathers nor his fathers’ fathers have done, scattering among them plunder, spoil, and goods. He shall devise plans against strongholds, but only for a time.
(Antiochus IV moved into the parts of the kingdom that were the richest. He spread around some of the spoils from his war campaigns to secure the loyalty of the people. The historical book of I Maccabees states that he spent much on the public (I Mac. 3:30). It is reported that he would go into the streets and throw money to the citizens there. Using his cunning, he visited Egyptian strongholds to find out their power.)
25 And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall wage war with an exceedingly great and mighty army; but he shall not stand, for plots shall be devised against him.
(In 170 BCE, Antiochus IV decided to take Egypt by force in the Sixth Syrian War. He moved his army to the border of Egypt before he was met by the Egyptians at Pelusium. The Egyptians had a large army arrayed against him there. Antiochus, risking death by riding into the midst of the battle of Pelusium, ordered the Egyptians to be taken alive instead of slain. By this policy, he gained Pelusium and later took Memphis.)
26 Even those who eat his rich food shall be his undoing; his army shall be swept away, and many shall fall down slain.
(Ptolemy VI’s army, although large, was not able to withstand Antiochus IV. In large part, this was due to the intrigues of Antiochus IV, who corrupted several of the Egyptian ministers and officers. This was one of the main causes of the defeat of Ptolemy VI. Those who were in his confidence and possessed the secrets of the state betrayed him to Antiochus IV. For example, Ptolemy Macron (also called “Ptolemy the son of Dorymenes”) had been appointed by Ptolemy VI as governor of Cyprus. However, sensing the young king’s weakness, he deserted to Antiochus IV, who made him governor of Coele Syria and Phoenicia.)
27 And as for the two kings, their minds shall be bent on mischief; they shall speak lies at the same table, but to no avail; for the end is yet to be at the time appointed.
(Antiochus IV set his sights on Alexandria. Due to the intrigues of Antiochus IV the Alexandrians had renounced their allegiance to Ptolemy VI, and had made his younger brother, Ptolemy VII Euergetes, king. While at Memphis, Antiochus IV and Ptolemy VI had frequent conferences. Antiochus IV professed his great friendship to his nephew and concern for his interests, but his true plan was to weaken Egypt by setting the brothers against one another. Conversely, Ptolemy VI professed gratitude to his uncle for the interest he took in his affairs. He laid the blame of the war upon his minister Eulaeus, one the guardians appointed to watch over him after his father’s death. All the while, Ptolemy VI sought to smooth over things with his brother Ptolemy VII so they could join forces against their uncle, Antiochus IV.)
28 And he shall return to his land with great substance, but his heart shall be set against the holy covenant. And he shall work his will, and return to his own land.
(Antiochus IV left Egypt; on his way home, he and his armies marched against Jerusalem. He commanded his soldiers to kill everyone they encountered (men, women, and children). Within the space of three days, his forces had killed somewhere between 40,000 and 80,000 people. A similar number were captured and sold into slavery. He entered the Temple and) took the holy vessels, including the golden altar, the menorah, the table for the showbread, the cups for drink offerings, the bowls, the golden censers, the curtain, the crowns, and the gold decoration on the front of the temple. He took all the silver and gold, as well as the hidden treasures which he found. After appointing the Phrygian Phillip as governor in Jerusalem, Antiochus IV then returned to Antioch.)
29 “At the time appointed he shall return and come into the south; but it shall not be this time as it was before.
(In Egypt brothers Ptolemy VI and Ptolemy VII reconciled and agreed to share power. This annulled Antiochus IV’s alliance with Ptolemy VI and caused his loss of control over the Ptolemaic kingdom. Because of this, in 168 BCE Antiochus IV once again sought to go to war against Egypt. However, this time he would not have the same success as he achieved previously.)
30 For ships of Kittim shall come against him, and he shall be afraid and withdraw, and shall turn back and be enraged and take action against the holy covenant. He shall turn back and give heed to those who forsake the holy covenant.
(The Ptolemy brothers appealed to Rome for help. In order to check the threat of Greek expansion, the Romans agreed to provide assistance. The “ships from Kittim” here refer to the ships which brought the Roman legions to Egypt. Antiochus IV and his army marched toward Alexandria, they were met by three Roman senators with the demand that he withdraw from Egypt. The king of the North was astonished at this display of Roman arrogance, but after a brief time, said he would do all that the Romans demanded. On his return to Syria, he tried to ease the humiliation he had suffered at the hands of the Romans by taking out his frustration on the Jews in Judea. His armies encircled Jerusalem and then attacked. All those Jews who resisted were executed. However, the pro Hellenistic Jews who allied themselves with Antiochus IV were left unharmed.)
31 Forces from him shall appear and profane the temple and fortress, and shall take away the continual burnt offering. And they shall set up the abomination that makes desolate.
(Antiochus IV’s army desecrated the Temple and stopped the daily sacrifices. On the 15th of Kislev, in December 168 BCE, the Syrians built a pagan altar over the altar of burnt offering in the Temple and placed an image of Zeus Olympius upon it. Ten days later, on the 25th of Kislev, swine’s flesh was offered on the altar to Zeus.) Note: There is more than one occurrence of the ‘Abomination of Desolation’ throughout scripture.
32 He shall seduce with flattery those who violate the covenant; but the people who know their God shall stand firm and take action.
(Antiochus IV decreed that his entire kingdom should become one people, each giving up his own customs. The other peoples under his rule accepted Antiochus IV’s command. Because of his flattering approach, many of the people of Israel also forsook the Law and adopted his religion. He commanded a change in all the ordinances of God. No sacrifices were to be offered in the sanctuary, the Sabbaths and feasts were to be profaned, the Jews were not to circumcise their sons. Upon pain of death, they were commanded to profane the true religion so that eventually the Law would be forgotten. Antiochus IV appointed inspectors to watch the Jews and commanded the cities of Judah to offer pagan sacrifices. Yet many in Israel stood firm and rejected the innovations of the king of the North.)
33 And those among the people who are wise shall make many understand, though they shall fall by sword and flame, by captivity and plunder, for some days.
(Copies of the Torah were burned. Anyone in possession of a Torah was put to death. Women who had their children circumcised were put to death, along with their entire families and those who had circumcised them. Many in Israel chose to die rather than to break the holy covenant.)
34 When they fall, they shall receive a little help. And many shall join themselves to them with flattery;
(The decrees of Antiochus IV led to a rebellion started by the priest Mattathias and his five sons (including Judas Maccabee). Judas Maccabee defeated the large army of Antiochus IV’s general Apollonius.
35 and some of those who are wise shall fall, to refine and to cleanse them and to make them white, until the time of the end, for it is yet for the time appointed.
The ‘time of the end’, and the ‘appointed time’ refer to the 70 weeks of years Prophecy, which led to the appearance of the Messiah at the end of the 62 ‘7’s – an ‘appointed time’. Jesus began His ministry by saying ‘The time is fulfulled’ also referring to this time.
36 Then the king shall do according to his will; he shall exalt himself and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak astonishing things against the God of gods. He shall prosper till the indignation is accomplished; for what is determined shall be done
The prophecy proceeds to tell us about the king at the time of the end according to the next stage of the Daniel 9 prophecy.
The king in verse 36 is talking of Herod the Great at the end of the time. He is not called the king of the North (who at this time was Octavius) or the king of the South (Antony & Cleopatra), but “the king.”
Herod was king of Judea whilst power struggles amongst the Romans were going on around him.
The first thing said of the King in v 36 is that he would “do according to his own will.”
Success in achieving and maintaining power defined Herod the Great.
37 He will show no regard for the gods of his ancestors or for the one desired by women, nor will he regard any god, but will exalt himself above them all.
Even though Herod was an Idumean (a descendant of Esau), his family had converted to Judaism in the 2nd century BCE. Therefore, Herod was generally regarded as a Jew. Yet he promoted Greek and Roman gods and built the port city of Caesarea (named after the Roman emperor Caesar Augustus).
Herod showed no regard for Jesus – the one desired of women – He saw Him as a threat to His throne and had the babies of Bethlehem murdered in the hope of killing Jesus.
38 He shall honor the god of fortresses instead of these; a god whom his fathers did not know he shall honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39 He shall deal with the strongest fortresses by the help of a foreign god; those who acknowledge him he shall magnify with honor. He shall make them rulers over many and shall divide the land for a price.
Herod’s actions massive building projects in securing and holding on to power provide an impressive fulfillment of this verse. The Roman emperors proclaimed themselves to be “gods,” and it was by their military “forces” or “fortresses” that they enlarged and sustained their power and their empire. Herod was quick to honor the warring Roman rulers with tribute and building projects. He rebuilt many fortresses in the land and temples in surrounding Gentile areas, including three temples dedicated to Caesar Augustus. He rebuilt the ancient Phoenician coastal fort called Strato’s Tower and renamed it Caesarea in honor of Caesar Augustus; he rebuilt Samaria, and renamed it Sebaste (sebastos was the Greek word for “reverend,” equivalent to the Latin augustus). He built many other fortified cities and named them in honor of Caesar. Herod also introduced Greek-style games in honor of Caesar. He often sent delegations to Rome to deliver valuable gifts and money to show his respect to Caesar.
Using the support and backing of the Roman emperor, Herod was able to overcome all of his foes. Herod gave land and authority to those who supported him in order to secure their allegiance.
v 40He (Herod – the initial subject from verse 36) shall conflict with the king of the south; but the king of the north shall rush upon him (the king of the South) like a whirlwind, with chariots and horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall come into countries and shall overflow and pass through. 41 He shall come into the glorious land. And tens of thousands shall fall, but these shall be delivered out of his hand: Edom and Moab and the main part of the Ammonites. 42 He shall stretch out his hand against the countries, and the land of Egypt shall not escape.
The chopping and changing of who ‘he’ refers to in these verses is very confusing. They are describing the conflict between Antony/Cleopatra and Octavius. Herod was caught in the middle- initially siding with Antony/Cleopatra – the ‘King of the South’ then changing allegiance and conflicting with them. Antony and Octavius made a pact with a third party (Marcus Aemilius Lepidus) to rule Rome after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE. In the civil war that followed Caesar’s death, they defeated the assassins’ forces in 42 BCE. The next year, Antony fell in love with Egyptian queen Cleopatra. After Antony suffered a military defeat against the Parthians in 36 BCE, he and Octavius had a falling out. Worsening the situation was the fact that, in 32 BCE, Antony divorced his Roman wife, Octavia (the sister of Octavius) and ceded many of the eastern Roman territories to Cleopatra and their children. Finally, in 31 BCE, a new civil war broke out between the Roman Senate-supported Octavius and Antony/Cleopatra.
The Roman historian Plutarch wrote that the first move in the war was made by Antony (at the insistence of Cleopatra). Thus we see that the “king of the South” indeed first attacked the “king of the North.” The Roman Senate quickly pronounced Antony an outlaw and declared war on Cleopatra.
In this war, Herod supported Antony and sent supplies to his forces. He wished to join Antony for a final showdown with Octavius, but Antony dispatched him and his troops to fight the Nabatean king Malichus I.
The conflict was decided by chariots, horsemen, and in a major naval battle, approximately 630 ships. After the navy of Antony and Cleopatra was routed off the promontory of Actium in Greece on September 2, 31 BCE, the infantry deserted and never saw battle.
Seeing that Antony was all but defeated, Herod helped Quintus Didius, the Roman governor of Syria, prevent a troop of Antony’s gladiators from reaching Egypt to aid Antony. Herod then undertook a dangerous sea voyage in winter 30 BCE to meet with Octavius on the Greek island of Rhodes. Herod came to him humbly and stated that he would be as loyal to Octavius as he had previously been to Antony. Octavius accepted Herod’s pledge and promised him continued rule over Judea.
The course Octavius took after his victory over Antony and Cleopatra accurately follows the prophecy. He passed through Syria, Judea (the “glorious land”), and Egypt in his pursuit of the pair. However, the lands of Edom, Moab, and Ammon were not invaded during this excursion. A later expedition into these areas (about 25 BCE), under the command of Aelius Gallus along with 500 troops from Herod, was not successful and no further efforts were made against them.
43 He (Octavius the King of the North) shall become ruler of the treasures of gold and of silver, and all the precious things of Egypt; and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall follow in his train.
Octavius captured the riches of Egypt with his victory over Antony and Cleopatra. He celebrated his triumph in Rome in 29 BCE. His general, Cornelius Balbus, later took Libya and Ethiopia for Rome.
44 Tidings from the east and the north shall alarm him, and he shall go forth with great fury to exterminate and utterly destroy many.
Having updated the story flow in verses 40-43 to show the Roman dominance of Judea and the end of the “king of the South,” the prophecy reverts to its earlier subject, Herod the king. The “tidings from the East” which troubled Herod was the news from the magi of the “King of the Jews”. Matt. 2:3 “When Herod the king heard this, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him”. In fury Herod murdered many – Matt. 2:16 “Then Herod, when he saw that he was deceived by the wise men, was exceedingly angry; and he sent forth and put to death all the male children who were in Bethlehem and in all its districts, from two years old and under.”
The “tidings from the North” came from Rome where his oldest son Antipater sent letters claiming that two of his other sons, were plotting against him. Herod had the two sons killed. A little later Herod executed Antipater and 300 of his supporters.
45 And he shall pitch the tabernacle of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; but he shall come to his portion, and there is none to deliver him” (Septuagint)
The end of Herod’s life was documented by Josephus. After years of suffering from a painful disease (probably syphilis), Herod finally attempted to take his own life. He was stopped by his cousin Achiab and died painfully.
Daniel 11 ends with the palaces of Herod in God’s mountain between the seas.
“He will pitch his royal tents between the seas in the beautiful holy mountain, but he will meet his end with no one to help him.”
In recent times they have found Herod’s tomb at Herodion. Herod built Herodion at the highest point of the mountains in the Judean desert, elevated and looking down on Jerusalem in honour of himself. According to Josephus he died at Jericho in another one of his royal ‘tents’ – thus he fulfilled the prophecy ‘between the Sea (Dead Sea) and the Holy Mountain (Zion).
“The dark days of Herod” are placed in contrast to the days of Jesus – the light of the world. Herod was proud and lifted up, his palace at Herodium looked down on Jerusalem. Jesus was born in a stable. His entry into Jerusalem was “humble and riding on a donkey”.
Daniel 11 concludes with Herod, bringing us to the time of Christ (first coming). Daniel 12 concerns the time of the end (the last ‘7’ of the 70 week prophecy. The details are sealed from Daniel but unsealed in Revelation and complete the missing 3.5 years of the 70 week prophecy after the 3.5 year ministry of Jesus. Revelation reveals the 42 months, 1260 days the time, times and half a time. It is the conclusion of ‘Israel Under Foreign Rule’ –
TIMELINE Ancient Israel
 66-70 CE and Bar Kokhba 132-135CE
 See notes on Chapter 6
 Luke 21:20-24
 Revelation 13:4
 See notes for Revelation 18
 See Appendix ‘Satan As An Angel of Light’
 See notes on Revelation 13 for fuller detail
 Rev. 3:14
 Ezekiel 22:18
 Hebrews 1:7
 Ezekiel 1:16
 Ezekiel 24:21
 Revelation 4:8
 Daniel 9:2
 Daniel 9:24-27
 Mark 1:15
 Genesis 3:15
 See Greek συγκερατισθήσεται
 Ezekiel 20:40
 Daniel 12:1
 Translators often call this a ‘Pale’ horse – but the word means green in other passages – green trees, grass
 Harry Whittaker, Revelation A Biblical Approach, Ch. 18, p113
 Rev 8:13
 Daniel 2:33
 Ezekiel 34:13-14 – I will pasture them on the mountains of Israel
 2 Kings 18:25
 2 Kings 18:23
 Revelation 13:1
 See notes on Revelation 4 – 4 Living Creatures
 Matt. 23:31
See Isaiah 8:7
 Har-Magedon in American Standard, Weymouth and English Revised Versions
 Zechariah 4:7 is another example
 Judges 5:19
 Zechariah 14:21
 1 Samuel 31:7
Irenaeus, Against Heresies, Book 3 Chapter 3 Section 2
 refer to wiki ‘cities on seven hills’
 Jer. 51:6 Flee Babylon, run for your lives
 Revelation 18:24
 Matthew 23:37
 Mark 1:15
 Daniel 9:24-27
 Mark 1:15